Modern Authoritarianism and Corruption

Author: Nisnevich, Yuliy Description: This paper focuses on the link between the modern authoritarianism and corruption. Even though corruption plays an important role in Communist regimes, post-colonial dictatorships and authoritarian monarchies, coercion – which is a traditional tool used by authoritarian rulers – remains the basis of these regimes. However, a new type of non-democratic regimes, which we call neoauthoritarian, has emerged since the last quarter of the XX century. The new regimes are based on a dynamic interplay between coercion and corruption. That interplay allows authoritarian rulers to bring…

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Local Distrust and Regime Support: Sources and Effects of Political Trust in China

Author: Chen, Dan Description: Political trust is an important indicator of regime support. However, we have yet to fully understand the sources and consequence of varying levels of trust in specific political institutions. Difference in political trust at national and local levels is especially important for understanding authoritarian systems. Focusing on China, this article examines different levels of trust in the central and local governments. Building on existing research that consistently finds high central trust with lower local trust, this article investigates whether the trust sources differ and the consequence…

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Effects of social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism on corrupt intention: The role of moral outrage

Author: Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Zheng, Wenwen; Huang, Zhenwei Description: Previous research suggested that dominance orientation and authoritarianism may be associated with corruption, but little research has verified this assumption or uncovered its psychological processes. In this article, we examined empirically the relationships between social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and corrupt intention and explored the mediating role of moral outrage on these relationships. A total of 677 college students participated in the study and completed measures of SDO, RWA, moral outrage and corrupt intention. Our findings demonstrated that…

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Media, Protest Diffusion, and Authoritarian Resilience

Author: Huang, Haifeng; Boranbay-Akan, Serra; Huang, Ling Description: Do authoritarian governments always censor news about protests to prevent unrest from spreading? Existing research on authoritarian politics stresses the danger that information spread within the society poses for a regime. In particular, media and Internet reports of social unrest are deemed to threaten authoritarian rule, as such reports may incite more protests and thus spread instability. We show that such reasoning is incomplete if social protests are targeted at local officials. Allowing media the freedom to report local protests may indeed…

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Sources of Corruption in Authoritarian Regimes

Author: Chang, Eric C. C.; Golden, Miriam A. Description: We study the determinants of corruption in a sample of 40-odd authoritarian polities at the turn of the 21st century. Recent studies have proposed several parallel mechanisms potentially relevant for variations in the extent of corruption in authoritarian regimes. We put these various theories into a unified empirical model in order to investigate the wide range of corruption observed in non-democratic political systems. We investigate the importance to variations in corruption in authoritarian countries of the type of group in power,…

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The Plant Microbiota: Systems-Level Insights and Perspectives

Author: Muller, Daniel B.; Vogel, Christine; Bai, Yang; Vorholt, Julia A. Description: Plants do not grow as axenic organisms in nature, but host a diverse community of microorganisms, termed the plant microbiota. There is an increasing awareness that the plant microbiota plays a role in plant growth and can provide protection from invading pathogens. Apart from intense research on crop plants, Arabidopsis is emerging as a valuable model system to investigate the drivers shaping stable bacterial communities on leaves and roots and as a tool to decipher the intricate relationship…

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The Plant Circadian Clock: From a Simple Timekeeper to a Complex Developmental Manager

Author: Sanchez, Sabrina E.; Kay, Steve A. Description: The plant circadian clock allows organisms to anticipate the predictable changes in the environment by adjusting their developmental and physiological traits. In the last few years, it was determined that responses known to be regulated by the oscillator are also able to modulate clock performance. These feedback loops and their multilayer communications create a complex web, and confer on the clock network a role that exceeds the measurement of time. In this article, we discuss the current knowledge of the wiring of…

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Molecular and genetic control of plant thermomorphogenesis

Author: Quint, Marcel; Delker, Carolin; Franklin, Keara A.; Wigge, Philip A.; Halliday, Karen J.; van Zanten, Martijn Description: Temperature is a major factor governing the distribution and seasonal behaviour of plants. Being sessile, plants are highly responsive to small differences in temperature and adjust their growth and development accordingly. The suite of morphological and architectural changes induced by high ambient temperatures, below the heat-stress range, is collectively called thermomorphogenesis. Understanding the molecular genetic circuitries underlying thermomorphogenesis is particularly relevant in the context of climate change, as this knowledge will be…

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Word meanings can be accessed but not reported during the attentional blink

Author: Luck, S. J.; Vogel, E. K.; Shapiro, K. L. Description: After the detection of a target item in a rapid stream of visual stimuli, there is a period of 400-600 ms during which subsequent targets are missed. This impairment has been labelled the ‘attentional blink’. It has been suggested that, unlike an eye blink, the additional blink does not reflect a suppression of perceptual processing, but instead reflects a loss of information at a postperceptual stage, such as visual short-term memory. Here we provide electrophysiological evidence that words presented…

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The effect of physician behavior on the collection of data

Author: Beckman, H. B.; Frankel, R. M. Description: Determining the patient’s major reasons for seeking care is of critical importance in a successful medical encounter. To study the physician’s role in soliciting and developing the patient’s concerns at the outset of a clinical encounter, 74 office visits were recorded. In only 17 (23%) of the visits was the patient provided the opportunity to complete his or her opening statement of concerns. In 51 (69%) of the visits the physician interrupted the patient’s statement and directed questions toward a specific concern;…

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