The biological activities of 26 gibberellins in nine plant bioassays

Author: Crozier, A.; Kuo, C.C.; Durley, R.C.; Pharis, R.P. Description: The activities of gibberellins A1–A15, A17–A27 and A8-glucoside are compared, using original and previously published data, in the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone α-amylase, Progress No. 9 dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), ‘Tan-ginbozu’ dwarf rice (Oryza sativa L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and the d-1, d-2, d-3, and d-5 maize (Zea mays L.) mutant bioassays. Gibberellins A3 and A7 show high activity in most bioassays. Gibberellins A9, A10, A23, and A24 are species specific in their…

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Memory in Autism: Review and Synthesis

Author: Shalom, D. Description: Much research about memory in autism concerns the hypothesis that autism is similar to adult-onset amnesia. Initial support for the hypothesis came from post-mortem studies of individuals with autism showing abnormalities in the hippocampus and related brain structures, as well as behavioral studies finding contrasts between intact cued recall and impaired free recall and recognition in autism. The hypothesis was later brought into question by the finding of intact performance in individuals with autism on explicit memory tasks typically impaired in adult-onset amnesia. The present paper…

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Lucy’s limbs: skeletal allometry and locomotion in Australopithecus afarensis

Author: Jungers, W.L. Description: Precise information about the bodily proportions of early hominids is crucial for accurate functional and phylogenetic interpretations of early human evolution. The partial skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis (AL 288-1; ‘Lucy’) recovered in 1974 from the Hadar area of Ethiopia permits the first direct assessment of body size, limb proportions and skeletal allometry in ancestral hominids that pre-date 3 Myr. Using allometric relationships for limb lengths in non-human catarrhine primates (as a whole and for African apes alone) as empirical base lines for comparison, I show here…

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Beta-amyloid pore linked to controlled calcium influx into the cell: A new paradigm for Alzheimer’s Disease

Author: Pannuzzo, Martina Description: Despite tremendous worldwide efforts, clinical trials assessing Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related therapeutics have been relentlessly unsuccessful. Hence, there is an urgent need to challenge old hypotheses with novel paradigms. An emerging concept is that the amyloid-beta (AB) peptide, which was until recently deemed a major player in the cause of AD, may instead modulate synaptic plasticity and protect against excitotoxicity. The link between AB-mediated synaptic plasticity and AB trafficking is central for understanding AD pathogenesis and remains a perplexing relationship. The crossover between AB pathological and physiological…

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Synthetic chalcones as potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents

Author: Won, Shen-Jeu; Liu, Cheng-Tsung; Tsao, Lo-Ti; Weng, Jing-Ru; Ko, Horng-Huey; Wang, Jih-Pyang; Lin, Chun-Nan Description: In an effort to develop potent anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents, a series of chalcones were prepared by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of appropriate acetophenones with suitable aromatic aldehyde or prepared with appropriate dihydrochalcone reacted with appropriate alkyl bromide or prepared in one-pot procedure involving acetophenone and convenient aromatic aldehyde using ultrasonic agitation on basic alumina. The synthesized products were tested for their inhibitory effects on the activation of mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and microglial cells….

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Energy metabolism in brown adipose tissue

Author: Wang, Zhichao; Wang, Qiong A.; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Lei Description: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is well known to burn calories through uncoupled respiration, producing heat to maintain body temperature. This ‘calorie wasting’ feature makes BAT a special tissue, which can function as an ‘energy sink’ in mammals. While a combination of high energy intake and low energy expenditure is the leading cause of overweight and obesity in modern society, activating a safe ‘energy sink’ has been proposed as a promising obesity treatment strategy. Metabolically, lipids and glucose have been…

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The endocrine role of brown adipose tissue: An update on actors and actions

Author: Gavalda-Navarro, Aleix; Villarroya, Joan; Cereijo, Ruben; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc Description: In recent years, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been recognized not only as a main site of non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals, but also as an endocrine organ. BAT secretes a myriad of regulatory factors. These so-called batokines exert local autocrine and paracrine effects, as well as endocrine actions targeting tissues and organs at a distance. The endocrine batokines include peptide factors, such as fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), neuregulin-4 (NRG4), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), interleukin-6, adiponectin and myostatin, and…

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Brown adipose tissue is associated with cardiometabolic health

Author: Becher, Tobias; Palanisamy, Srikanth; Kramer, Daniel J.; Eljalby, Mahmoud; Marx, Sarah J.; Wibmer, Andreas G.; Butler, Scott D.; Jiang, Caroline S.; Vaughan, Roger; Schoder, Heiko; Mark, Allyn; Cohen, Paul Description: White fat stores excess energy, whereas brown and beige fat are thermogenic and dissipate energy as heat. Thermogenic adipose tissues markedly improve glucose and lipid homeostasis in mouse models, although the extent to which brown adipose tissue (BAT) influences metabolic and cardiovascular disease in humans is unclear1,2. Here we retrospectively categorized 134,529 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans from…

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Microbiota depletion promotes browning of white adipose tissue and reduces obesity

Author: Suarez-Zamorano, Nicolas; Fabbiano, Salvatore; Chevalier, Claire; Stojanovic, Ozren; Colin, Didier J.; Stevanovic, Ana; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Tarallo, Valentina; Rigo, Dorothee; Germain, Stephane; Ilievska, Miroslava; Montet, Xavier; Seimbille, Yann; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Trajkovski, Mirko Description: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) promotes a lean and healthy phenotype and improves insulin sensitivity. In response to cold or exercise, brown fat cells also emerge in the white adipose tissue (WAT; also known as beige cells), a process known as browning. Here we show that the development of functional beige fat in the inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue…

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Adipose tissue browning and metabolic health

Author: Bartelt, Alexander; Heeren, Joerg Description: Accumulation of excess white adipose tissue (WAT) has deleterious consequences for metabolic health. The activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT), the primary organ for heat production, confers beneficial effects on adiposity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia, at least in mice. As the amount of metabolically active BAT seems to be particularly low in patients with obesity or diabetes mellitus who require immediate therapy, new avenues are needed to increase the capacity for adaptive thermogenesis. In this light, we review the findings that BAT in human…

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