Methane emissions from oil and gas platforms in the North Sea

Author: Riddick, Stuart N.; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Celia, Michael; Harris, Neil R. P.; Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Staunton-Sykes, John; Forster, Grant L.; Kang, Mary; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Manning, Alistair J. Description: Since 1850 the concentration of atmospheric methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, has more than doubled. Recent studies suggest that emission inventories may be missing sources and underestimating emissions. To investigate whether offshore oil and gas platforms leak CH4 during normal operation, we measured CH4 mole fractions around eight oil and gas production platforms in the North…

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When Development Is Not Enough: Structural Change, Conflict and Gendered Insecurity

Author: Brysk, Alison; Mehta, Aashish Description: Despite two decades of rapid global economic growth and social modernization, including increases in gender equity, levels of violence against women remain stubbornly high. Moving beyond conventional liberal views, a growing literature has identified how structural change and conflict associated with economic development can exacerbate women’s physical insecurity. We examine the relationship between development patterns and variation in the Physical Security of Women index—the best available cross-national indicator—to fill the gap in emerging ethnographic, case and survey-based accounts with systematic cross-country assessment. We find…

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Environmental Impacts of the Deep-Water Oil and Gas Industry: A Review to Guide Management Strategies

Author: Cordes, Erik E.; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Amon, Diva J.; Bernardino, Angelo F.; Brooke, Sandra; Carney, Robert; DeLeo, Danielle M.; Dunlop, Katherine M.; Escobar-Briones, Elva G.; Gates, Andrew R.; Genio, Luciana; Gobin, Judith; Henry, Lea-Anne; Herrera, Santiago; Hoyt, Sarah; Joye, Mandy; Kark, Salit; Mestre, Nelia C.; Metaxas, Anna; Pfeifer, Simone; Sink, Kerry; Sweetman, Andrew K.; Witte, Ursula Description: The industrialization of the deep sea is expanding worldwide. Increasing oil and gas exploration activities in the absence of sufficient baseline data in deep-sea ecosystems has made environmental…

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Maritime energy and security: Synergistic maximization or necessary tradeoffs?

Author: Nyman, Elizabeth Description: Offshore energy is big business. The traditional source of maritime energy, offshore petroleum and gas, has been on the rise since a reliable method of extraction was discovered in the mid-20th century. Lately, it has been joined by offshore wind and tidal power as alternative “green” sources of maritime energy. Yet all of this has implications for maritime environmental regimes as well, as maritime energy extraction/generation can have a negative effect on the ocean environment. This paper considers two major questions surrounding maritime energy and environmental…

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Exercise as an antidepressant: exploring its therapeutic potential

Author: Hwang, Dong-Joo; Koo, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Jang, Yong-Chul; Hyun, Ah-Hyun; Yook, Jang-Soo; Yoon, Chang-Sun; Cho, Joon-Yong Description: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the prevalence of depressive disorders worldwide, requiring alternative treatments beyond medication and psychotherapy. Exercise has positive effects on the brain; therefore, it has emerged as a promising therapeutic option for individuals with depression. Considerable research involving humans and animals offers compelling evidence to support the mental health benefits of physical activity or exercise mediated by the regulation of complex theoretical paradigms. However, challenges such as conducting long-term…

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Fish densities associated with structural elements of oil and gas platforms in southern California

Author: Meyer-Gutbrod, Erin L.; Kui, Li; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Love, Milton S.; Schroeder, Donna M.; Miller, Robert J. Description: There are thousands of offshore oil and gas platforms worldwide that will eventually become obsolete, and one popular decommissioning alternative is the “rigs to reefs” conversion that designates all or a portion of the underwater infrastructure as an artificial reef, thereby reducing the burden of infrastructure removal. The unique architecture of each platform may influence the size and structure of the associated fish assemblage if different structural elements form distinct habitats…

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Genomic surveillance for antimicrobial resistance – a One Health perspective

Author: Djordjevic, Steven P.; Jarocki, Veronica M.; Seemann, Torsten; Cummins, Max L.; Watt, Anne E.; Drigo, Barbara; Wyrsch, Ethan R.; Reid, Cameron J.; Donner, Erica; Howden, Benjamin P. Description: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) – the ability of microorganisms to adapt and survive under diverse chemical selection pressures – is influenced by complex interactions between humans, companion and food-producing animals, wildlife, insects and the environment. To understand and manage the threat posed to health (human, animal, plant and environmental) and security (food and water security and biosecurity), a multifaceted ‘One Health’ approach…

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Effect of exercise for depression: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Author: Noetel, Michael; Sanders, Taren; Gallardo-Gomez, Daniel; Taylor, Paul; Del Pozo Cruz, Borja; van den Hoek, Daniel; Smith, Jordan J.; Mahoney, John; Spathis, Jemima; Moresi, Mark; Pagano, Rebecca; Pagano, Lisa; Vasconcellos, Roberta; Arnott, Hugh; Varley, Benjamin; Parker, Philip; Biddle, Stuart; Lonsdale, Chris Description: OBJECTIVE: To identify the optimal dose and modality of exercise for treating major depressive disorder, compared with psychotherapy, antidepressants, and control conditions. DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. METHODS: Screening, data extraction, coding, and risk of bias assessment were performed independently and in duplicate. Bayesian arm based,…

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A simple method for cross-dating increment cores from living trees

Author: Yamaguchi, David K. Description: For many types of forest studies, it is essential to identify the exact years of formation of annual rings in increment cores taken from living trees. To accomplish this, dendrochronologists employ cross dating, which involves both ring counting and ring-width pattern matching, to ensure against counting error, or errors, caused by missing or false rings. To date, published accounts of the cross-dating process generally describe a graphical method for achieving cross dating, known as skeleton plotting. However, when working with cores from living trees, skeleton…

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Enhanced stability of grassland soil temperature by plant diversity

Author: Huang, Yuanyuan; Stein, Gideon; Kolle, Olaf; Kübler, Karl; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Dong, Hui; Eichenberg, David; Gleixner, Gerd; Hildebrandt, Anke; Lange, Markus; Roscher, Christiane; Schielzeth, Holger; Schmid, Bernhard; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Shadaydeh, Maha; Denzler, Joachim; Ebeling, Anne; Eisenhauer, Nico Description: Extreme weather events are occurring more frequently, and research has shown that plant diversity can help mitigate the impacts of climate change by increasing plant productivity and ecosystem stability. Although soil temperature and its stability are key determinants of essential ecosystem processes, no study has yet investigated whether plant…

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