The biological activities of 26 gibberellins in nine plant bioassays

Author: Crozier, A.; Kuo, C.C.; Durley, R.C.; Pharis, R.P. Description: The activities of gibberellins A1–A15, A17–A27 and A8-glucoside are compared, using original and previously published data, in the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone α-amylase, Progress No. 9 dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), ‘Tan-ginbozu’ dwarf rice (Oryza sativa L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and the d-1, d-2, d-3, and d-5 maize (Zea mays L.) mutant bioassays. Gibberellins A3 and A7 show high activity in most bioassays. Gibberellins A9, A10, A23, and A24 are species specific in their…

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Memory in Autism: Review and Synthesis

Author: Shalom, D. Description: Much research about memory in autism concerns the hypothesis that autism is similar to adult-onset amnesia. Initial support for the hypothesis came from post-mortem studies of individuals with autism showing abnormalities in the hippocampus and related brain structures, as well as behavioral studies finding contrasts between intact cued recall and impaired free recall and recognition in autism. The hypothesis was later brought into question by the finding of intact performance in individuals with autism on explicit memory tasks typically impaired in adult-onset amnesia. The present paper…

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Lucy’s limbs: skeletal allometry and locomotion in Australopithecus afarensis

Author: Jungers, W.L. Description: Precise information about the bodily proportions of early hominids is crucial for accurate functional and phylogenetic interpretations of early human evolution. The partial skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis (AL 288-1; ‘Lucy’) recovered in 1974 from the Hadar area of Ethiopia permits the first direct assessment of body size, limb proportions and skeletal allometry in ancestral hominids that pre-date 3 Myr. Using allometric relationships for limb lengths in non-human catarrhine primates (as a whole and for African apes alone) as empirical base lines for comparison, I show here…

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Synthetic chalcones as potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents

Author: Won, Shen-Jeu; Liu, Cheng-Tsung; Tsao, Lo-Ti; Weng, Jing-Ru; Ko, Horng-Huey; Wang, Jih-Pyang; Lin, Chun-Nan Description: In an effort to develop potent anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents, a series of chalcones were prepared by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of appropriate acetophenones with suitable aromatic aldehyde or prepared with appropriate dihydrochalcone reacted with appropriate alkyl bromide or prepared in one-pot procedure involving acetophenone and convenient aromatic aldehyde using ultrasonic agitation on basic alumina. The synthesized products were tested for their inhibitory effects on the activation of mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and microglial cells….

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Advances in topical and systemic antifungals

Author: Zhang, Alexandra Y.; Camp, William L.; Elewski, Boni E. Description: Topical antifungal agents are generally used for the treatment of superficial fungal infections unless the infection is widespread, involves an extensive area, or is resistant to initial therapy. Systemic antifungals are often reserved for the treatment of onychomycosis, tinea capitis, superficial and systemic candidiasis, and prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal infections. With the development of resistant fungi strains and the increased incidence of life-threatening invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, some previously effective traditional antifungal agents are subject…

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Calcineurin: a calcium- and calmodulin-binding protein of the nervous system

Author: Klee, C. B.; Crouch, T. H.; Krinks, M. H. Description: The inhibitory protein that binds calmodulin and thus prevents activation of several Ca2+-dependent enzymes by calmodulin is shown to also bind four Ca2+ per mol of protein with high affinity (Kd less than or equal to 10(-6) M). On the basis of its Ca2+- binding properties and its localization to nervous tissue, the inhibitory protein is now called calcineurin. Calcineurin is composed of two subunits: calcineurin A (61,000 Mr) which interacts with calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent fashion, and calcineurin…

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A role for calcineurin in Alzheimer’s disease

Author: Reese, Lindsay C.; Taglialatela, Giulio Description: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an incurable age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by profound memory dysfunction. This bellwether symptom suggests involvement of the hippocampus — a brain region responsible for memory formation — and coincidentally an area heavily burdened by hyperphosphorylated tau and neuritic plaques of amyloid beta (AB). Recent evidence suggests that pre-fibrillar soluble AB underlies an early, progressive loss of synapses that is a hallmark of AD. One of the downstream effects of soluble AB aggregates is the activation of the phosphatase calcineurin…

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What a difference a species makes: a meta-analysis of dreissenid mussel impacts on freshwater ecosystems

Author: Higgins, S.N.; Zanden, M.J.V. Description: We performed a meta-analysis of published studies and long-term monitoring data sets to evaluate the effects of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. rostriformis bugensis), two of the world’s most problematic biological invaders, on the biogeochemistry, flora, and fauna of lakes and rivers across North America and Eurasia. Dreissenid effects were structured along two distinct energy pathways. For the pelagic–profundal pathway, large mean reductions in phytoplankton (35% to 78%) and zooplankton (40% to 77%) biomass occurred and were dependent on habitat type. The largest…

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Who likes it hot? A global analysis of the climatic, ecological, and evolutionary determinants of warming tolerance in ants

Author: Diamond, S.E.; Sorger, D.M.; Hulcr, J.; Pelini, S.L.; Toro, I.D.; Hirsch, C.; Oberg, E.; Dunn, R.R. Description: Effects of climate warming on wild populations of organisms are expected to be greatest at higher latitudes, paralleling greater anticipated increases in temperature in these regions. Yet, these expectations assume that populations in different regions are equally susceptible to the effects of warming. This is unlikely to be the case. Here, we develop a series of predictive models for physiological thermal tolerances in ants based on current and future climates. We found…

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An experimental analysis of surprise

Author: Meyer, W.-U.; Niepel, M.; Rudolph, U.; Schützwohl, A. Description: We investigated the effects of a schema-discrepant event on three characteristics of surprise: delay in the execution of a simple action (measured by reaction times), involuntary focusing of attention toward the surprising stimulus (measured by memory performance), and subjective experience of surprise (measured by the subjects’ ratings). The experimental procedure in each of the four experiments reported here was related to a technique introduced by McLeod, Mathews, and Tata (1986). In each trial 2 words were displayed simultaneously, one above…

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