Preparation of solid-state Z-scheme Bi2MoO6/MO (MCu, Co3/4, or Ni) heterojunctions with internal electric field-improved performance in photocatalysis

Author: Li, H.; Hu, T.; Zhang, R.; Liu, J.; Hou, W. Description: Up to now, studies on solid-state Z-scheme two-component heterojunctions have hardly referred to roles of interfacial internal electric fields (IEFs). Herein, solid-state Z-scheme Bi2MoO6/MO (M = Cu, Co3/4, or Ni) heterojunction photocatalysts were simply synthesized, for the first time, with enhanced photocatalytic performance toward organic degradation. Electron microscopy images reveal that the MO homogeneously distributes on surfaces of the Bi2MoO6 hierarchical microspheres, and they close contact with distinct heterojunction interfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) suggest that the electron…

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Investigations of Electronic Structures and Photocatalytic Activities under Visible Light Irradiation of Lead Molybdate Replaced with Chromium(VI)

Author: Shimodaira, Y.; Kato, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Kudo, A. Description: Chromium-replaced PbMoO4, PbMo1−xCrxO4, prepared by an aqueous reflux method, showed a photocatalytic activity for O2 evolution from an aqueous solution containing an electron accepter, such as Ag+ or Fe3+ under visible light irradiation (vis) (λ ≥ 420 nm). PbMo0.98Cr0.02O4 (Energy gap: 2.26 eV) showed the highest activity for the O2 evolution under vis and UV + vis light irradiation. The activity of PbMo0.98Cr0.02O4 was one order of magnitude higher than that of PbMoO4 under UV + vis light irradiation. The…

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PVP assisted hydrothermal fabrication and morphology-controllable fabrication of BiFeO3 uniform nanostructures with enhanced photocatalytic activities

Author: Wang, X.; Mao, W.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, Q.; Zhu, Y.; Zhang, J.; Yang, T.; Yang, J.; Li, X.’ao; Huang, W. Description: Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) nanostructures with various morphologies (spindles, cubes and plates) have been successfully synthesized via a convenient one-pot hydrothermal method. The results show that three kinds of BiFeO3 products were obtained in this polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-assisted hydrothermal reaction under different alkaline conditions. The resulting nanostructures were characterized using XRD and SEM. Possible formation mechanism for BiFeO3 nanostructures was proposed on the basis of our results. The experiments showed…

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The Excellence of Both Worlds: Developing Effective Double Perovskite Oxide Catalyst of Oxygen Reduction Reaction for Room and Elevated Temperature Applications

Author: Hua, B.; Zhang, Y.-Q.; Yan, N.; Li, M.; Sun, Y.-F.; Chen, J.; Li, J.; Luo, J.-L. Description: The efficiencies of a number of electrochemical devices (e.g., fuel cells and metal-air batteries) are mainly governed by the kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Among all the good ORR catalysts, the partially substituted double perovskite oxide (AA′B2O5+ δ) has the unique layered structure, providing a great flexibility regarding the optimization of its electronic structures and physicochemical properties. Here, it is demonstrated that the double perovskite oxide, i.e., NdBa0.75Ca0.25Co1.5Fe0.5O5+δ, is a…

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Catalytic effects in oxygen permeation through mixed-conductive LSCF perovskite membranes

Author: Teraoka, Y. Description: The porous catalytic layer of perovskites was coated on either surface or both surfaces of the dense membranes of LSCF perovskites with nearly 1-mm thickness, and the catalytic effects on the oxygen permeation flux under the air/He gradient were investigated. The observed catalytic effects were discussed mainly on the basis of the oxygen sorption–desorption capacity (OSDC) of membrane and catalyst materials. The coating on the anode side improved the oxygen flux in any combinations of the membrane and catalyst materials having different OSDC, and an increase…

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Optimal Physical Training During Military Basic Training Period

Author: Santtila, M.; Pihlainen, K.; Viskari, J.; Kyrolainen, H. Description: The goal for military basic training (BT) is to create a foundation for physical fitness and military skills of soldiers. Thereafter, more advanced military training can safely take place. Large differences in the initial physical performance of conscripts or recruits have led military units to develop more safe and effective training programs. The purpose of this review article was to describe the limiting factors of optimal physical training during the BT period. This review revealed that the high volume of…

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The Next 50 Years: Considering Gender as a Context for Understanding Young Children’s Peer Relationships

Author: Fabes, R.A.; Martin, C.L.; Hanish, L.D. Description: The study of children’s peer relationships has been well represented within the pages of Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Particularly over the last decade, the pace of publishing studies on peer relationships has increased. Despite this upswing in interest in peer relationships, significant gaps remain. In this article, we focus on a particularly overlooked and significant area of peer relationships, namely, the role of sex-segregated peer interactions and how these relate to development in early childhood. We review why this topic is important for researchers…

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The effect of victims’ responses to overt bullying on same-sex peer bystander reactions

Author: Sokol, N.; Bussey, K.; Rapee, R.M. Description: This study investigated the impact of victims’ responses to overt bullying on peer bystanders’ attitudes and reactions. Fifth- and seventh-grade students (N = 206; M(age) = 11.13 and 13.18 years, respectively) completed online questionnaires about gender-consistent videotaped hypothetical bullying scenarios in which the victims’ responses (angry, sad, confident, ignoring) were experimentally manipulated. Victims’ responses significantly influenced bystanders’ attitudes towards the victim, perceptions of the victimization, emotional reactions, and behavioral intentions. In general, angry victims elicited more negative reactions, sad victims elicited greater…

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The definition of mental disorder: evolving but dysfunctional?

Author: Bingham, R.; Banner, N. Description: Extensive and diverse conceptual work towards developing a definition of ‘mental disorder’ was motivated by the declassification of homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1973. This highly politicised event was understood as a call for psychiatry to provide assurances against further misclassification on the basis of discrimination or socio-political deviance. Today, if a definition of mental disorder fails to exclude homosexuality, then it fails to provide this safeguard against potential abuses and therefore fails to do an important part of the work…

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A comparison of three indicators for identifying Mexican Americans in epidemiologic research. Methodological findings from the San Antonio Heart Study

Author: Hazuda, H.P.; Comeaux, P.J.; Stern, M.P.; Haffner, S.M.; Eifler, C.W.; Rosenthal, M. Description: Because the issue of how to empirically identify Mexican Americans in health-related research is still unresolved, the authors compared the performance of three indicators for identifying Mexican Americans across five distinct population subgroups: men and women in two age strata, and residents in low, middle, and high socioeconomic neighborhoods. Individual surname had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values in the pooled population sample and varied the most widely on these parameters across population subgroups. Parental…

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