Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of nicotine and cotinine with frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus

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Author: Dawson, D.A.; Fort, D.J.; Smith, G.J.; Newell, D.L.; Bantle, J.A.

Description: The teratogenic potential of nicotine and a primary metabolite, cotinine, was examined with FETAX (Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay: Xenopus). Early embryos of Xenopus laevis were exposed for 96 hr to nicotine or cotinine in two separate static renewal tests of each compound without addition of the metabolic activation system (MAS). Two static renewal tests of nicotine with the MAS were also conducted. Addition of the MAS to nicotine reduced the LC50 from an average of 136 to 20 mg/L. However, the EC50 (malformation) was increased from 0.4 to 5.8 mg/L upon activation. The LC50 and EC50 values for cotinine averaged 4,340 and 720 mg/L, respectively. Based on mortality/malformation index values, growth end points, and the types and severity of the induced malformations, nicotine and cotinine scored as potential teratogens. Metabolism of nicotine to more polar metabolites increased the nicotine concentration required to induce terata. The results are indicative of the versatility of FETAX in developmental toxicity testing.

Subject headings: Animals; Biotransformation; Cotinine/toxicity; Models, Biological; Nicotine/toxicity; Pyrrolidinones/toxicity; Teratogens/toxicity; Xenopus laevis/embryology

Publication year: 1988

Journal or book title: Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis

Volume: 8

Issue: 6

Pages: 329-338

Find the full text : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/tcm.1770080603

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 3000