A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation

Author: Deci, E. L.; Koestner, R.; Ryan, R. M.

Description: A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation (d = -0.40, -0.36, and -0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagement-contingent and completion-contingent rewards also significantly undermined self-reported interest (d = -0.15, and -0.17), as did all tangible rewards and all expected rewards. Positive feedback enhanced both free-choice behavior (d = 0.33) and self-reported interest (d = 0.31). Tangible rewards tended to be more detrimental for children than college students, and verbal rewards tended to be less enhancing for children than college students. The authors review 4 previous meta-analyses of this literature and detail how this study’s methods, analyses, and results differed from the previous ones.

Subject headings: Behavior Therapy; Choice Behavior; Conditioning, Operant; Humans; Internal-External Control; Motivation; Reward; Meta-analytic review; Extrinsic rewards; Intrinsic motivation

Publication year: 1999

Journal or book title: Psychological Bulletin

Volume: 125

Issue: 6

Pages: 627-668; discussion 692-700

Find the full text: https://leeds-faculty.colorado.edu/dahe7472/deci%201999.pdf

Find more like this one (cited by): https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=6403778800770536860&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Serial number: 3699

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