Complete 1H and 13C NMR data assignment of protolimonoids from the stem barks of Aphanamixis grandifolia

Author: Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Luo, J.; Kong, L. Description: Seven new protolimonoids, named aphagranins A-G (1-7), along with four known compounds, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the stem barks of Aphanamixis grandifolia. Structure elucidation and signal assignments were achieved on the basis of spectral and chemical evidences. Subject headings: Carbon Isotopes; Limonins–chemistry, isolation & purification; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Meliaceae–chemistry; Plant Stems–chemistry; Protons Publication year: 2011 Journal or book title: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC Volume: 49 Issue: 7 Pages: 450-457 Find the full text : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/mrc.2768 Find…

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Differential developmental trajectories for egocentric, environmental and intrinsic frames of reference in spatial memory

Author: Nardini, M.; Burgess, N.; Breckenridge, K.; Atkinson, J. Description: We studied the development of spatial frames of reference in children aged 3-6 years, who retrieved hidden toys from an array of identical containers bordered by landmarks under four conditions. By moving the child and/or the array between presentation and test, we varied the consistency of the hidden toy with (i) the body, and (ii) the testing room. The toy’s position always remained consistent with (iii) the array and bordering landmarks. We found separate, additive performance advantages for consistency with…

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The ovarian hormone estradiol plays a crucial role in the control of food intake in females

Author: Eckel, L.A. Description: Despite a strong male bias in both basic and clinical research, it is becoming increasingly accepted that the ovarian hormone estradiol plays an important role in the control of food intake in females. Estradiol’s feeding inhibitory effect occurs in a variety of species, including women, but the underlying mechanism has been studied most extensively in rats and mice. Accordingly, much of the data reviewed here is derived from the rodent literature. Adult female rats display a robust decrease in food intake during estrus and ovariectomy promotes…

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Membrane protein architects: the role of the BAM complex in outer membrane protein assembly

Author: Knowles, T.J.; Scott-Tucker, A.; Overduin, M.; Henderson, I.R. Description: The folding of transmembrane proteins into the outer membrane presents formidable challenges to Gram-negative bacteria. These proteins must migrate from the cytoplasm, through the inner membrane and into the periplasm, before being recognized by the beta-barrel assembly machinery, which mediates efficient insertion of folded beta-barrels into the outer membrane. Recent discoveries of component structures and accessory interactions of this complex are yielding insights into how cells fold membrane proteins. Here, we discuss how these structures illuminate the mechanisms responsible for…

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QU-GENE: a simulation platform for quantitative analysis of genetic models

Author: Podlich, D.W.; Cooper, M. Description: MOTIVATION: Classical quantitative genetics theory makes a number of simplifying assumptions in order to develop mathematical expressions that describe the mean and variation (genetic and phenotypic) within and among populations, and to predict how these are expected to change under the influence of external forces. These assumptions are often necessary to render the development of many aspects of the theory mathematically tractable. The availability of high-speed computers today provides opportunity for the use of computer simulation methodology to investigate the implications of relaxing many…

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Impairment of actions chains in autism and its possible role in intention understanding

Author: Cattaneo, L.; Fabbri-Destro, M.; Boria, S.; Pieraccini, C.; Monti, A.; Cossu, G.; Rizzolatti, G. Description: Experiments in monkeys demonstrated that many parietal and premotor neurons coding a specific motor act (e.g., grasping) show a markedly different activation when this act is part of actions that have different goals (e.g., grasping for eating vs. grasping for placing). Many of these “action-constrained” neurons have mirror properties firing selectively to the observation of the initial motor act of the actions to which they belong motorically. By activating a specific action chain from…

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Neuroanatomical differences in toddler boys with fragile x syndrome and idiopathic autism

Author: Hoeft, F.; Walter, E.; Lightbody, A.A.; Hazlett, H.C.; Chang, C.; Piven, J.; Reiss, A.L. Description: CONTEXT: Autism is an etiologically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder for which there is no known unifying etiology or pathogenesis. Many conditions of atypical development can lead to autism, including fragile X syndrome (FXS), which is presently the most common known single-gene cause of autism. OBJECTIVE: To examine whole-brain morphometric patterns that discriminate young boys with FXS from those with idiopathic autism (iAUT) as well as control participants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, in vivo neuroimaging study. SETTING: Academic…

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Effect of metal ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+) and water coordination on the structure and properties of L-histidine and zwitterionic L-histidine

Author: Remko, M.; Fitz, D.; Rode, B.M. Description: Interactions between metal ions and amino acids are common both in solution and in the gas phase. The effect of metal ions and water on the structure of L-histidine is examined. The effect of metal ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+) and water on structures of His.M(H2O)m, m=0.1 complexes have been determined theoretically employing density functional theories using extended basis sets. Of the five stable complexes investigated the relative stability of the gas-phase complexes computed with DFT methods…

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Reactions to UV damage in the model archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

Author: Frols, S.; White, M.F.; Schleper, C. Description: Mechanisms involved in DNA repair and genome maintenance are essential for all organisms on Earth and have been studied intensively in bacteria and eukaryotes. Their analysis in extremely thermophilic archaea offers the opportunity to discover strategies for maintaining genome integrity of the relatively little explored third domain of life, thereby shedding light on the diversity and evolution of these central and important systems. These studies might also reveal special adaptations that are essential for life at high temperature. A number of investigations…

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A typology of divorcing couples: implications for mediation and the divorce process

Author: Kressel, K.; Jaffee, N.; Tuchman, B.; Watson, C.; Deutsch, M. Description: An experimental mediation procedure for the negotiation of divorce settlement agreements was studied through the intensive analysis of nine completed mediation cases. The audio recordings of mediation sessions and postdivorce interviews with both of the former marital partners provided the material on which the analysis is based. Five additional couples, drawn from a similar population but who used the traditional adversarial system, provided a comparative perspective. High levels of prenegotiation conflict and nonmutuality of the decision to divorce…

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