Molecular and genetic control of plant thermomorphogenesis

Author: Quint, Marcel; Delker, Carolin; Franklin, Keara A.; Wigge, Philip A.; Halliday, Karen J.; van Zanten, Martijn Description: Temperature is a major factor governing the distribution and seasonal behaviour of plants. Being sessile, plants are highly responsive to small differences in temperature and adjust their growth and development accordingly. The suite of morphological and architectural changes induced by high ambient temperatures, below the heat-stress range, is collectively called thermomorphogenesis. Understanding the molecular genetic circuitries underlying thermomorphogenesis is particularly relevant in the context of climate change, as this knowledge will be…

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The Plant Circadian Clock: From a Simple Timekeeper to a Complex Developmental Manager

Author: Sanchez, Sabrina E.; Kay, Steve A. Description: The plant circadian clock allows organisms to anticipate the predictable changes in the environment by adjusting their developmental and physiological traits. In the last few years, it was determined that responses known to be regulated by the oscillator are also able to modulate clock performance. These feedback loops and their multilayer communications create a complex web, and confer on the clock network a role that exceeds the measurement of time. In this article, we discuss the current knowledge of the wiring of…

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The Plant Microbiota: Systems-Level Insights and Perspectives

Author: Muller, Daniel B.; Vogel, Christine; Bai, Yang; Vorholt, Julia A. Description: Plants do not grow as axenic organisms in nature, but host a diverse community of microorganisms, termed the plant microbiota. There is an increasing awareness that the plant microbiota plays a role in plant growth and can provide protection from invading pathogens. Apart from intense research on crop plants, Arabidopsis is emerging as a valuable model system to investigate the drivers shaping stable bacterial communities on leaves and roots and as a tool to decipher the intricate relationship…

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The effect of physician behavior on the collection of data

Author: Beckman, H. B.; Frankel, R. M. Description: Determining the patient’s major reasons for seeking care is of critical importance in a successful medical encounter. To study the physician’s role in soliciting and developing the patient’s concerns at the outset of a clinical encounter, 74 office visits were recorded. In only 17 (23%) of the visits was the patient provided the opportunity to complete his or her opening statement of concerns. In 51 (69%) of the visits the physician interrupted the patient’s statement and directed questions toward a specific concern;…

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Word meanings can be accessed but not reported during the attentional blink

Author: Luck, S. J.; Vogel, E. K.; Shapiro, K. L. Description: After the detection of a target item in a rapid stream of visual stimuli, there is a period of 400-600 ms during which subsequent targets are missed. This impairment has been labelled the ‘attentional blink’. It has been suggested that, unlike an eye blink, the additional blink does not reflect a suppression of perceptual processing, but instead reflects a loss of information at a postperceptual stage, such as visual short-term memory. Here we provide electrophysiological evidence that words presented…

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Cancer cell cycles

Author: Sherr, C. J. Description: Uncontrolled cell proliferation is the hallmark of cancer, and tumor cells have typically acquired damage to genes that directly regulate their cell cycles. Genetic alterations affecting p16(INK4a) and cyclin D1, proteins that govern phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) and control exit from the G1 phase of the cell cycle, are so frequent in human cancers that inactivation of this pathway may well be necessary for tumor development. Like the tumor suppressor protein p53, components of this “RB pathway,” although not essential for the cell…

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Antibody-Drug Conjugates for the Treatment of Solid Tumors: Clinical Experience and Latest Developments

Author: Nagayama, Aiko; Ellisen, Leif W.; Chabner, Bruce; Bardia, Aditya Description: Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are complex immunoconjugates designed to selectively deliver toxic small molecules preferentially to cancer cells. These immunoconjugates consist of a monoclonal antibody – directed to a tumor antigen – and a cytotoxic agent that is conjugated to the antibody via a molecular linker. Following the binding to a specific antigen on the surface of cancer cells, the conjugate is internalized and releases its cytotoxic payload to kill the malignant cell. ADCs that have gained regulatory approval from…

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Staphylococcus aureus Epicutaneous Exposure Drives Skin Inflammation via IL-36-Mediated T Cell Responses

Author: Liu, Haiyun; Archer, Nathan K.; Dillen, Carly A.; Wang, Yu; Ashbaugh, Alyssa G.; Ortines, Roger V.; Kao, Tracy; Lee, Steven K.; Cai, Shuting S.; Miller, Robert J.; Marchitto, Mark C.; Zhang, Emily; Riggins, Daniel P.; Plaut, Roger D.; Stibitz, Scott; Geha, Raif S.; Miller, Lloyd S. Description: Staphylococcus aureus colonization contributes to skin inflammation in diseases such as atopic dermatitis, but the signaling pathways involved are unclear. Herein, epicutaneous S. aureus exposure to mouse skin promoted MyD88-dependent skin inflammation initiated by IL-36, but not IL-1α/β, IL-18, or IL-33. By contrast,…

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Molecular Mechanisms of Bismuth-containing Drugs Against Helicobacter pylori: a Further Update

Author: Liu, Jiahui; Li, Xinhang; Zhu, Yulin; Ge, Ruiguang Description: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections cause various gastric diseases in humans, such as gastritis, peptic ulcerations, and even gastric cancer. Bismuth-based triple or quadruple therapies have been commonly recommended for the treatment of H. pylori infections. Up to now, the molecular mechanisms by which bismuth inhibits the growth of H. pylori are far from fully clear. Subject headings: Helicobacter pylori; Bismuth-containing drug; Enzyme inhibition; Nickel homeostasis; Energy production Publication year: 2023 Journal or book title: Current Pharmacology Reports Volume: 9…

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The multisubunit active site of fumarase C from Escherichia coli

Author: Weaver, T. M.; Levitt, D. G.; Donnelly, M. I.; Stevens, P. P.; Banaszak, L. J. Description: The crystal structure of the tetrameric enzyme, fumarase C from Escherichia coli, has been determined to a resolution of 2.0 A. A tungstate derivative used in the X-ray analysis is a competitive inhibitor and places the active site of fumarase in a region which includes atoms from three of the four subunits. The polypeptide conformation is similar to that of delta-crystallin and is comprised of three domains. The central domain, D2, is a…

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