Functional implications of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain

Author: Lee, Daniel A.; Blackshaw, Seth Description: Adult neurogenesis represents a striking example of structural plasticity in the mature brain. Research on adult mammalian neurogenesis today focuses almost exclusively on two areas: the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. Numerous studies, however, have also reported adult neurogenesis in the hypothalamus, a brain structure that serves as a central homeostatic regulator of numerous physiological and behavioral functions, such as feeding, metabolism, body temperature, thirst, fatigue, aggression, sleep, circadian…

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Molecular signature of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: an insight from genotype to phenotype and challenges for targeted therapy

Author: Sahin, I.H.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, C.A.; O’Reilly, E.M. Description: INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains one of the most clinically challenging cancers despite an in-depth characterization of the molecular underpinnings and biology of this disease. Recent whole-genome-wide studies have elucidated the diverse and complex genetic alterations which generate a unique oncogenic signature for an individual pancreatic cancer patient and which may explain diverse disease behavior in a clinical setting. AREAS COVERED: In this review article, we discuss the key oncogenic pathways of pancreatic cancer including RAS-MAPK, PI3KCA and TGF-beta signaling, as well as…

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Stress and adult neurogenesis

Author: Mirescu, Christian; Gould, Elizabeth Description: Stress hormones have potent growth-inhibiting effects on a variety of peripheral tissues. Consistent with this general function, stress has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and, ultimately, neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This effect appears to be common across mammalian species, life stages, and most types of stressors. Although some evidence points to a role for glucocorticoids in mediating this effect, contradictory data exist. This review considers the growing literature on this subject with specific emphasis on paradoxical findings and the role of glucocorticoids in…

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Reprogramming of Keratinocytes as Donor or Target Cells Holds Great Promise for Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine

Author: Zhang, Yuehou; Hu, Wenzhi; Ma, Kui; Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing Description: One of the most crucial branches of regenerative medicine is cell therapy, in which cellular material is injected into the patient to initiate the regenerative process. Cells obtained by reprogramming of the patient’s own cells offer ethical and clinical advantages could provide a new source of material for therapeutic applications. Studies to date have shown that only a subset of differentiated cell types can be reprogrammed. Among these, keratinocytes, which are the most abundant proliferating cell type in…

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Ethical development of stem-cell-based interventions

Author: MacPherson, Amanda; Kimmelman, Jonathan Description: The process of developing new and complex stem-cell-based therapeutics is incremental and requires decades of sustained collaboration among different stakeholders. In this Perspective, we address key ethical and policy challenges confronting the clinical translation of stem-cell-based interventions (SCBIs), including premature diffusion of SCBIs to clinical practice, assessment of risk in trials, obtaining valid informed consent for research participants, balanced and complete scientific reporting and public communications, regulation, and equitable access to treatment. We propose a way forward for translating these therapies with the above…

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Immune thrombocytopenia: pathophysiologic and clinical update

Author: Stasi, R. Description: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by both reduced platelet survival and suppression of megakaryocyte and platelet development. It can either be primary or secondary to other autoimmune disorders, infections, vaccines, lymphoproliferative disorders, and drugs. Antibodies reacting against platelet glycoproteins are typical of ITP; these antibodies can mediate destruction of platelets by the monocyte-macrophage system as well as suppress megakaryocyte proliferation and maturation. Abnormalities of cell-mediated immunity are known to contribute to the pathologic process. Like many other autoimmune diseases, ITP has a T…

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Targeting Glioblastoma with the Use of Phytocompounds and Nanoparticles

Author: Pistollato, F.; Bremer-Hoffmann, S.; Basso, G.; Cano, S.S.; Elio, I.; Vergara, M.M.; Giampieri, F.; Battino, M. Description: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are extremely lethal and still poorly treated primary brain tumors, characterized by the presence of highly tumorigenic cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulations, considered responsible for tumor relapse. In order to successfully eradicate GBM growth and recurrence, new anti-cancer strategies selectively targeting CSCs should be designed. CSCs might be eradicated by targeting some of their cell surface markers and transporters, inducing their differentiation, impacting their hyper-glycolytic metabolism, inhibiting CSC-related signaling…

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Cancer as an evolutionary and ecological process

Author: Merlo, L.M.F.; Pepper, J.W.; Reid, B.J.; Maley, C.C. Description: Neoplasms are microcosms of evolution. Within a neoplasm, a mosaic of mutant cells compete for space and resources, evade predation by the immune system and can even cooperate to disperse and colonize new organs. The evolution of neoplastic cells explains both why we get cancer and why it has been so difficult to cure. The tools of evolutionary biology and ecology are providing new insights into neoplastic progression and the clinical control of cancer. Subject headings: Animals; Cell Communication; Cell…

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Cardiovascular regeneration in non-mammalian model systems: what are the differences between newts and man?

Author: Borchardt, Thilo; Braun, Thomas Description: The mammalian heart cannot regenerate substantial cardiac injuries, while certain non-mammalian vertebrates such as certain fish (Danio rerio) and amphibiae (Notophthalmus viridescens) are able to repair the heart without functional impairment. In mammalians, the prevailing repair process is accompanied by fibrosis and scarring, while zebrafish and newts can replace lost contractile tissue by newly formed cardiac muscle with only little or no scar formation. A better understanding of cardiac regeneration in non-mammalian vertebrates might provide new insights for the manipulation of regenerative pathways in…

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