Veterinary use and antibiotic resistance

Author: Teuber, M. Description: Globally, an estimated 50% of all antimicrobials serve veterinary purposes. Bacteria that inevitably develop antibiotic resistance in animals comprise food-borne pathogens, opportunistic pathogens and commensal bacteria. The same antibiotic resistance genes and gene transfer mechanisms can be found in the microfloras of animals and humans. Direct contact, food and water link animal and human habitats. The accumulation of resistant bacteria by the use of antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary medicine and the spread of such bacteria via agriculture and direct contamination are documented. Subject headings: Agriculture;…

See more and a link to full text

Grapefruit juice and its furocoumarins inhibits autoinducer signaling and biofilm formation in bacteria

Author: Girennavar, B.; Cepeda, M.L.; Soni, K.A.; Vikram, A.; Jesudhasan, P.; Jayaprakasha, G.K.; Pillai, S.D.; Patil, B.S. Description: Cell-to-cell communications in bacteria mediated by small diffusible molecules termed as autoinducers (AI) are known to influence gene expression and pathogenicity. Oligopeptides and N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) are major AI molecules involved in intra-specific communication in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria respectively, whereas boronated-diester molecules (AI-2) are involved in inter-specific communication among both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Naturally occurring furocoumarins from grapefruit showed >95% inhibition of AI-1 and AI-2 activities based on the Vibrio…

See more and a link to full text

Competitive interactions inside mixed-culture biofilms of Salmonella Typhimurium and cultivable indigenous microorganisms on lettuce enhance microbial resistance of their sessile cells to ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation

Author: Jahid, I.K.; Han, N.R.; Srey, S.; Ha, S.-D. Description: Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) is one of the leading causes of foodborne diseases in fresh produce, such as lettuce. Despite this, the role of the possible interactions between lettuce indigenous microorganisms and ST on their ability to form biofilm on lettuce and subsequently on the sensitivity of their sessile cells to ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation, remains relatively unexplored. Here, the interaction of a mixed-culture of ST and cultivable indigenous microorganisms (CIMs) was examined, as well as the efficacy of UV-C. Initially,…

See more and a link to full text

Climate change impacts on mycotoxin risks in US maize

Author: Wu, F.; Bhatnagar, D.; Bui-Klimke, T.; Carbone, I.; Hellmich, R.; Munkvold, G.; Paul, P.; Payne, G.; Takle, E. Description: To ensure future food security, it is crucial to understand how potential climate change scenarios will affect agriculture. One key area of interest is how climatic factors, both in the near- and the long-term future, could affect fungal infection of crops and mycotoxin production by these fungi. The objective of this paper is to review the potential impact of climate change on three important mycotoxins that contaminate maize in the…

See more and a link to full text

Popular Topics

Alzheimer’s disease Antibiotic resistance Arabidopsis Bacterial pathogens Caenorhabditis elegans (C elegans) Climate change Diabetes Mellitus Diels-Alder Divorce and children Drought Escherichia coli Food contamination Gut microbiome/microbiota Memory Plant stress Prairie Sleep Viruses

See more and a link to full text

Hydrogen production by nitrogenase as a potential crop rotation benefit

Author: Golding, A.-L.; Dong, Z. Description: Both climate change and the adverse effects of chemical use on human and environmental health are recognized as serious issues of global concern. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the agricultural sector where release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane continues to be problematic and where use of nitrogen fertilizer is responsible for negative impacts on both human populations and ecosystems. The manipulation of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) could help alleviate part of the difficulty by decreasing the…

See more and a link to full text

Co-selection of multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens in metal and microplastic contaminated environments: An emerging health threat

Author: Imran, Md; Das, Kirti Ranjan; Naik, Milind Mohan Description: Misuse/over use of antibiotics increases the threats to human health since this is a main reason behind evolution of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. However, metals such as mercury, lead, zinc, copper and cadmium are accumulating to critical concentration in the environment and triggering co-selection of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The co-selection of metal driven antibiotic resistance in bacteria is achieved through co-resistance or cross resistance. Metal driven antibiotic resistant determinants evolved in bacteria and present on same mobile genetic elements…

See more and a link to full text

The association of fast food consumption with poor dietary outcomes and obesity among children: is it the fast food or the remainder of the diet?

Poti, J.M., Duffey, K.J., Popkin, B.M. (2014) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99(1), 162-171 BACKGROUND: Although fast food consumption has been linked to adverse health outcomes, the relative contribution of fast food itself compared with the rest of the diet to these associations remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare the independent associations with overweight/obesity or dietary outcomes for fast food consumption compared with dietary pattern for the remainder of intake. DESIGN: This cross-sectional analysis studied 4466 US children aged 2-18 y from NHANES 2007-2010. Cluster analysis identified…

See more and a link to full text

Farm-to-school programs: perspectives of school food service professionals

Izumi, B.T., Alaimo, K., Hamm, M.W. (2010) Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 42(2), 83-91 OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study used a case study approach to explore the potential of farm-to-school programs to simultaneously improve children’s diets and provide farmers with viable market opportunities. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews were the primary data collection strategy. SETTING: Seven farm-to-school programs in the Upper Midwest and Northeast regions of the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Seven school food service professionals, 7 farmers, and 4 food distributors recruited from 7 farm-to-school programs. PHENOMENON OF INTEREST: Interviews probed why…

See more and a link to full text

The role of orexin-A in food motivation, reward-based feeding behavior and food-induced neuronal activation in rats

Author: Choi, D.L.; Davis, J.F.; Fitzgerald, M.E.; Benoit, S.C. Description: Consumption beyond homeostatic needs, referred to here as reward-based feeding behavior, is a central contributor to the current obesity epidemic worldwide. Importantly, reward-based feeding can be driven by palatability, the taste and texture of the food, as well as cues associated with the consumption of palatable foods. The hypothalamic orexin system regulates both diet preference and anticipation of food rewards making it a likely target to modulate reward-based feeding behavior. In the current manuscript, we hypothesized that orexin signaling mediates…

See more and a link to full text