Recent development of peptide coupling reagents in organic synthesis

Han, S.-Y., Kim, Y.-A. (2004) Tetrahedron, 60(11), 2447-2467 This review evaluates the advantages, disadvantages, and effectiveness of newly developed peptide coupling reagents used in organic synthesis. Each reagent is classified into one of eight types including phosphonium, uronium, immonium, carbodiimide, imidazolium, organophosphorous, acid halogenating and other coupling reagents, according to the structural similarity. Subject headings: Peptide coupling reagent; Amino acid; Racemisation suppressant; Enantiomeric excess Find the full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040402004000651 Find more like this one (cited by): https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=4147721855168984242&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en Type: Journal Article Serial number: 2152

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Olefin metathesis

Grubbs, R.H. (2004) Tetrahedron, 60(34), 7117-7140 Olefin metathesis has become a tool for synthetic organic and polymer chemists. Well-defined, functional group tolerant catalysts have allowed these advances. A discussion of the evolution of mechanistic understanding and early catalyst developments is followed by a description of recent advances in ruthenium based olefin metathesis catalysts. Catalysts improvements have led to new applications in ring closing metathesis, cross metathesis and materials synthesis. Subject headings: Olefin metathesis; Synthetic organic chemistry; Polymer chemistry; Ruthenium Find the full text: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004040200400941X Find more like this one (cited…

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Microwave assisted synthesis of the fragrant compound Calone 1951®

Drevermann, B., Lingham, A., Hügel, H., Marriott, P. (2005) Tetrahedron Letters, 46(1), 39-41 Calone 1951®, 7-methyl-benzo[b][1,4]dioxepin-3-one, possesses a strong marine, ozone note with floral nuances and is synthesised via a three-step procedure using microwave irradiation. High yields were obtained, and reaction times reduced to a few minutes, allowing for an efficient and inexpensive synthesis of Calone 1951®. Microwave irradiation has been utilized in a three-step synthetic route to the fragrant compound, 7-methyl-benzo[b][1,4]dioxepin-3-one, commercially known as Calone 1951®. The use of a microwave reactor increases the simplicity and efficiency of the…

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Uncatalysed Knoevenagel condensation in aqueous medium at room temperature

Deb, M.L., Bhuyan, P.J. (2005) Tetrahedron Letters, 46(38), 6453-6456 Knoevenagel condensation of various aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes with active methylene compounds like malononitrile, ethyl cyanoacetamide, ethyl cyanoacetate, barbituric acids, Meldrum’s acid, dimedone and pyrazolone proceeds smoothly with stirring in an aqueous medium. The reactions occur at room temperature giving excellent yields of the products. The work-up procedure is very simple and the products do not require further purification. Subject headings: Knoevenagel condensation; Barbituric acid; Meldrum’s acid; Malononitrile; Aqueous medium; Uncatalysed reaction Find the full text: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004040390501631X Find more like this…

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A new synthon for the synthesis of aminoinositol derivatives

Cokol, N.K., Kaya, S., Balci, M. (2017) Tetrahedron Letters, 58(28), 2732-2735 The regio- and stereoselective synthesis of a new synthon, trans-3,8-dioxatricyclo[3.2.1.02,4]octane-6,7-diamine, from 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylate is reported. Transformation of the acid functionalities to acyl azides followed by Curtius rearrangement gave the corresponding trans-diisocyanate, which was reacted with HCl to produce a trans-diamino compound that is a potentially important synthon for the versatile synthesis of aminocyclitols. Subject Headings: Oxabicycloheptene; Aminoinositol; Diacylazide; Curtius rearrangement; Neighboring group participation Find the full text: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040403917307104 Find more like this one (cited by): https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=14984188309882251101&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en Type: Journal Article Serial…

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Selective reduction of aromatic nitro compounds with stannous chloride in non acidic and non aqueous medium

Bellamy, F.D., Ou, K. (1984) Tetrahedron Letters, 25(8), 839-842 Aromatic nitro compounds are readily reduced by SnCl2, 2 H2O in alcohol or ethyl acetate or by anhydrous SnCl2 in alcohol where other reducible or acid sensitive groups such as aldehyde, ketone, ester, cyano, halogen and O-benzyl remain unaffected. Subject headings: nitro compounds; stannous chloride; alcohol; ethyl acetate Find the full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040403901800411 Find more like this one (cited by): https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=8698024315650781615&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en Type: Journal Article Serial number: 1465

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Conjugate addition of indoles and thiols with electron-deficient olefins catalyzed by Bi(OTf)3

Alam, M.M., Varala, R., Adapa, S.R. (2003) Tetrahedron Letters, 44(27), 5115-5119 Conjugate addition of indoles and thiols with a variety of electron-deficient olefins mediated by a catalytic amount of Bi(OTf)3 at ambient temperature to afford the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yields with high selectivity is reported. Subject Headings: Bi(OTf)3; indoles; thiols; alpha, Beta-unsaturated compounds; addition reactions Find the full text: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004040390301089X Find more like this one (cited by): https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=11716101828703031418&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en Type: Journal Article Serial number: 2843

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Perinatal exposure to genistein alters reproductive development and aggressive behavior in male mice

Wisniewski, A.B., Cernetich, A., Gearhart, J.P., Klein, S.L. (2005) Physiology & Behavior, 84(2), 327-334 Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals adversely affects reproductive development and behavior in males. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to genistein, an isoflavone found in soy, during early periods of sex differentiation alters reproductive development and behavior in male mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a phytoestrogen-free diet supplemented with 0, 5 or 300 mg/kg of genistein throughout gestation and lactation. Anogenital distance (AGD) and body mass of male offspring was measured…

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Comparative teratogenicity of chlorpyrifos and malathion on Xenopus laevis development

Bonfanti, P., Colombo, A., Orsi, F., Nizzetto, I., Andrioletti, M., Bacchetta, R., Mantecca, P., Fascio, U., Vailati, G., Vismara, C. (2004) Aquatic Toxicology, 70(3), 189-200 The embryotoxic potential of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and malathion (MTN), two organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), was evaluated by modified Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX). CPF and MTN were not embryolethal even at the highest concentration tested (6000 microg/l), but both exhibited a powerful teratogenicity. The probit analysis of malformed larva percentages showed a TC(50) of 161.54mug/l for CPF, and a TC(50) of 2394.01 microg/l for MTN. Therefore,…

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Effects of malathion on survival, growth, development, and equilibrium posture of bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana)

Fordham, C.L., Tessari, J.D., Ramsdell, H.S., Keefe, T.J. (2001) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20(1), 179-184 Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles were exposed to malathion in water in a 28-d static renewal test. The effects of malathion on survival, growth, development, and loss of equilibrium posture were determined. Survival was significantly decreased at malathion concentrations of 2,500 micrograms/L and higher. Development of tadpoles was delayed significantly by malathion exposure as indicated by a dose-related decrease in developmental stage over time. Development of tadpoles in the 1,000-microgram/L and higher treatment groups was significantly…

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