Role of parents in the determination of the food preferences of children and the development of obesity

Author: Benton, D. Description: The role of parental behaviour in the development of food preferences is considered. Food preferences develop from genetically determined predispositions to like sweet and salty flavours and to dislike bitter and sour tastes. Particularly towards the second year of life, there is a tendency to avoid novel foods (neophobia). Food aversions can be learnt in one trial if consumption is followed by discomfort. There is a predisposition to learn to like foods with high-energy density. However, from birth genetic predispositions are modified by experience and in…

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The driving forces for nitrogen and phosphorus flows in the food chain of China, 1980 to 2010

Author: Hou, Y.; Ma, L.; Gao, Z.L.; Wang, F.H.; Sims, J.T.; Ma, W.Q.; Zhang, F.S. Description: Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) use and losses in China’s food chain have accelerated in the past three decades, driven by population growth, rapid urbanization, dietary transition, and changing nutrient management practice. There has been little detailed quantitative analysis of the relative magnitude of these driving forces throughout this period. Therefore, we analyzed changes in N and P flows and key drivers behind changes in the food (production and consumption) chain at the national…

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Watching a food-related television show and caloric intake. A laboratory study

Author: Bodenlos, J.S.; Wormuth, B.M. Description: Television watching has been positively associated with overeating and obesity. How popular food-related television shows affects eating behavior has not been examined. An experimental study was conducted to examine how exposure to a food-related television program affects amount and type of food consumed in adults (N=80). Participants were randomized to watch a cooking or nature television program and were then presented with 800 total calories of chocolate covered candies, cheese curls, and carrots. Food was weighed before and after the ad libitum eating session…

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The relevance of gene transfer to the safety of food and feed derived from genetically modified (GM) plants

van den Eede, G., Aarts, H., Buhk, H.-J., Corthier, G., Flint, H.J., Hammes, W., Jacobsen, B., Midtvedt, T., van der Vossen, J., von Wright, A., Wackernagel, W., Wilcks, A. (2004) Food and Chemical Toxicology: an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 42(7), 1127-1156 In 2000, the thematic network ENTRANSFOOD was launched to assess four different topics that are all related to the testing or assessment of food containing or produced from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Each of the topics was linked to a European Commission (EC)-funded…

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The effects of metals and food availability on the behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans

Author: Boyd, W.A.; Cole, R.D.; Anderson, G.L.; Williams, P.L. Description: Caenorhabditis elegans, a nonparasitic soil nematode, was used to assess the combined effects of metal exposures and food availability on behavior. Movement was monitored using a computer tracking system after exposures to Cu, Pb, or Cd while feeding was measured as a change in optical density (deltaOD) of bacteria suspensions over the exposure period. After 24-h exposures at high and low bacteria concentrations, movement was decreased in a concentration-dependent fashion by Pb and Cd but feeding reductions were not directly…

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Options for keeping the food system within environmental limits

Author: Springmann, M., Clark, M., Mason-D’Croz, D., Wiebe, K., Bodirsky, B. L., Lassaletta, L., de Vries, W., Vermeulen, S. J., Herrero, M., Carlson, K. M., Jonell, M., Troell, M., DeClerck, F., Gordon, L. J., Zurayk, R., Scarborough, P., Rayner, M., Loken, B., Fanzo, J., Godfray, H. C. J., Tilman, D., Rockström, J., & Willett, W. Description: The food system is a major driver of climate change, changes in land use, depletion of freshwater resources, and pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems through excessive nitrogen and phosphorus inputs. Here we show…

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Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

Author: Anton, S.D.; Martin, C.K.; Han, H.; Coulon, S.; Cefalu, W.T.; Geiselman, P.; Williamson, D.A. Description: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. 19 healthy lean (BMI=20.0-24.9) and 12 obese (BMI=30.0-39.9) individuals 18-50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received…

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Racial/ethnic and income disparities in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage television ads across the U.S. media markets

Author: Powell, L.M.; Wada, R.; Kumanyika, S.K. Description: Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically…

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The Influence of the Microbiome on Allergic Sensitization to Food

Author: Plunkett, Catherine H.; Nagler, Cathryn R. Description: The alarming increase in the incidence and severity of food allergies has coincided with lifestyle changes in Western societies, such as dietary modifications and increased antibiotic use. These demographic shifts have profoundly altered the coevolved relationship between host and microbiota, depleting bacterial populations critical for the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. There is increasing evidence that the dysbiosis associated with sensitization to food fails to stimulate protective tolerogenic pathways, leading to the development of the type 2 immune responses that characterize allergic disease….

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The ovarian hormone estradiol plays a crucial role in the control of food intake in females

Author: Eckel, L.A. Description: Despite a strong male bias in both basic and clinical research, it is becoming increasingly accepted that the ovarian hormone estradiol plays an important role in the control of food intake in females. Estradiol’s feeding inhibitory effect occurs in a variety of species, including women, but the underlying mechanism has been studied most extensively in rats and mice. Accordingly, much of the data reviewed here is derived from the rodent literature. Adult female rats display a robust decrease in food intake during estrus and ovariectomy promotes…

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