Impact of Nighttime Temperature on Physiology and Growth of Spring Wheat

Author: Prasad, P.V.V.; Pisipati, S.R.; Ristic, Z.; Bukovnik, U.; Fritz, A.K. Description: Climate models predict greater increases in nighttime temperature in the future. The impacts of high nighttime temperature on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are not well understood. Objectives of this research were to quantify the impact of high nighttime temperatures during reproductive development on phenology, physiological, vegetative, and yield traits of wheat. Two spring wheat cultivars (Pavon-76 and Seri-82) were grown at optimum temperatures (day/night, 24/14°C; 16/8 h light/dark photoperiod) from sowing to booting. Thereafter, plants were exposed to…

See more and a link to full text

Climate change impacts on soil erosion in Midwest United States with changes in crop management

Author: O’Neal, M.R.; Nearing, M.A.; Vining, R.C.; Southworth, J.; Pfeifer, R.A. Description: This study investigates potential changes in erosion rates in the Midwestern United States under climate change, including the adaptation of crop management to climate change. Previous studies of erosion under climate change have not taken into account farmer choices of crop rotations or planting dates, which will adjust to compensate for climate change. In this study, changes in management were assigned based on previous studies of crop yield, optimal planting date, and most profitable rotations under climate change…

See more and a link to full text

Effects of elevated CO2 on the growth, seed yield, and water use efficiency of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) under drought stress

Author: Li, D.; Liu, H.; Qiao, Y.; Wang, Y.; Cai, Z.; Dong, B.; Shi, C.; Liu, Y.; Li, X.; Liu, M. Description: This study aims to evaluate the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (EC) on soybean growth in the water-deficient region of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China. A pot experiment involving two CO2 concentrations (ambient, 380.1 ± 32.2 umol mol-1 and elevated, 740.6 ± 45.4 umol mol-1) and two water levels (normal and drought) were conducted in enclosed top chambers. The results showed that plant height, leaf area, and shoot dry weight…

See more and a link to full text

The fungal dimension of biodiversity: magnitude, significance, and conservation

Author: Hawksworth, D.L. Description: Fungi, members of the kingdoms Chromista, Fungi s.str. and Protozoa studied by mycologists, have received scant consideration in discussions on biodiversity. The number of known species is about 69 000, but that in the world is conservatively estimated at 1·5 million; six-times higher than hitherto suggested. The new world estimate is primarily based on vascular plant: fungus ratios in different regions. It is considered conservative as: (1) it is based on the lower estimates of world vascular plants; (2) no separate provision is made for the…

See more and a link to full text

Biodiversity of fungal endophyte communities inhabiting switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) growing in the native tallgrass prairie of northern Oklahoma

Author: Ghimire, S.R.; Charlton, N.D.; Bell, J.D.; Krishnamurthy, Y.L.; Craven, K.D. Description: This study was conducted to explore fungal endophyte communities inhabiting native switchgrass plants from the tallgrass prairie of northern Oklahoma. The primary focus was to isolate these endophytes in pure culture from surface-sterilized plant tissues and provide taxonomic identifications based on comparative analysis of ITS rDNA gene sequences. From these data, we evaluated the biodiversity of these potentially beneficial endosymbionts from this rapidly disappearing habitat of the Great Plains. While important from a strictly conservationist standpoint, this survey…

See more and a link to full text

Chilling stress response of postemergent cotton seedlings

Author: DeRidder, B.P.; Crafts-Brandner, S.J. Description: Early season development of cotton is often impaired by sudden episodes of chilling temperature. We determined the chilling response specific to postemergent 13-day-old cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 100A-glandless) seedlings. Seedlings were gradually chilled during the dark period and rewarmed during the night-to-day transition. For some chilled plants, the soil temperature was maintained at control level. Plant growth, water relations and net photosynthesis (P(n)) were analyzed after one or three chilling cycles and after 3 days of recovery. Three chilling cycles led to…

See more and a link to full text

Salt stress effects on roots and leaves of Atriplex halimus L. and their corresponding callus cultures

Author: Bajji, M.; Kinet, J.-M.; Lutts, S. Description: Salt stress effects on growth, osmotic adjustment, mineral and organic contents and soluble peroxidase activities were determined in roots and leaves of Atriplex halimus and their corresponding callus cultures. Low NaCl doses (150 mM) promoted shoot growth, corroborating the halophilic nature of this species; in these stress conditions, Na+ concentration markedly increased in the leaves indicating that salinity resistance was not associated with the ability of the plants to restrict sodium accumulation in the aerial part. Whole organs and their corresponding calli…

See more and a link to full text

Soil Compaction and Moisture Stress Preconditioning in Kentucky Bluegrass. II. Stomatal Resistance, Leaf Water Potential, and Canopy Temperature

Author: Agnew, M.L.; Carrow, R.N. Description: In this greenhouse study, we investigated the effects of soil compaction and moisture stress preconditioning on stomatal diffusive resistance (Rs), leaf water potential (Y1), and canopy minus air temperatures of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. ‘Ram I’). The compaction treatments were: (i) NC = no compaction, (ii) LT = long-term compaction over a 99-day period, and (iii) ST = short-term compaction for 9 days. The compactive treatment was equivalent to 720 J energy. Irrigation regimes were initiated at the same time as LT compaction…

See more and a link to full text

Beyond transcription: RNA-binding proteins as emerging regulators of plant response to environmental constraints

Author: Ambrosone, Alfredo; Costa, Antonello; Leone, Antonella; Grillo, Stefania Description: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) govern many aspects of RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA processing, transport, stability/decay and translation. Although relatively few plant RNA-binding proteins have been characterized genetically and biochemically, more than 200 RBP genes have been predicted in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, suggesting that they might serve specific plant functions. Besides their role in normal cellular functions, RBPs are emerging also as an interesting class of proteins involved in a wide range of post-transcriptional regulatory events that are important in providing…

See more and a link to full text

Overexpression of GASA5 increases the sensitivity of Arabidopsis to heat stress

Author: Zhang, S.; Wang, X. Description: Basal thermotolerance is very important for plant growth and development when plants are subjected to heat stress. However, little is known about the functional mechanism of gibberellins (GAs) in the basal thermotolerance of plants. In the present work, we provide molecular evidence that a member of the gene family encoding the GA-stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA) peptides, namely GASA5, is involved in the regulation of seedling thermotolerance. The GASA5-overexpressing plants displayed a weak thermotolerance, with a faster cotyledon-yellowing rate, lower seedling-survival rate, and slower hypocotyl elongation,…

See more and a link to full text