Developing regional and species-level assessments of climate change impacts on biodiversity in the Cape Floristic Region

Author: Midgley, G.F.; Hannah, L.; Millar, D.; Thuiller, W.; Booth, A. Description: We assess the potential impact of climate change on plant diversity in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) and its interaction with land transformation that has already occurred in the region. Predictions were made both at the scale of the Fynbos Biome (the dominant vegetation assemblage in the CFR) and for selected Proteaceae species. Bioclimatic modelling identified parts of the biome at particular risk from climate change. Species-level modelling (Generalised Additive Modelling) was done for 28 Proteaceae species selected…

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Nitrogen Removal by Orchardgrass and Smooth Bromegrass and Residual Soil Nitrate

Author: Singer, J.W.; Moore, K.J. Description: Nitrogen removal by cool-season grasses may aid in capturing excess N from animal confinement operations or phytoremediation. Limited information exists on the N dynamics of these grasses near the asymptote of the N response curve. The objectives of this study were to evaluate N removal, residual soil NO3–N, and apparent N recovery in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) at annual N rates of 224, 448, and 672 kg ha-1 Species × harvest interactions were observed in both years, but…

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Tropical forests and the global carbon cycle: impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate change and rate of deforestation

Author: Cramer, W.; Bondeau, A.; Schaphoff, S.; Lucht, W.; Smith, B.; Sitch, S. Description: The remaining carbon stocks in wet tropical forests are currently at risk because of anthropogenic deforestation, but also because of the possibility of release driven by climate change. To identify the relative roles of CO2 increase, changing temperature and rainfall, and deforestation in the future, and the magnitude of their impact on atmospheric CO2 concentrations, we have applied a dynamic global vegetation model, using multiple scenarios of tropical deforestation (extrapolated from two estimates of current rates)…

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Assessing the vulnerability of Indian mustard to climate change

Author: Boomiraj, K.; Chakrabarti, B.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Choudhary, R.; Chander, S. Description: Rapeseed-mustard (Brassica spp.) is a major group of oilseed crop in the world with India being the second largest cultivator after China. Although there has been a significant increase in oilseed production since 1960s, the demand for oilseeds production in the future is likely to go up due to population increase and their income. Mustard is very sensitive to climatic variables and hence climate could have significant effect on its production. There are very limited studies to assess…

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Climate change in Argentina: trends, projections, impacts and adaptation

Author: Barros, V.R.; Boninsegna, J.A.; Camilloni, I.A.; Chidiak, M.; Magrín, G.O.; Rusticucci, M. Description: In most of Argentina, the warming since 1901 was a little lower than the global average, although with strong trends in temperature extremes and in heat waves during the most recent decades. There was a remarkable increase in precipitation over most of subtropical Argentina, especially since 1960. This has favored agriculture yields and the extension of crop lands into semiarid regions, but this increase also came with more frequent heavy rainfalls and consequent flooding of rural…

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Will photosynthesis of maize (Zea mays) in the US Corn Belt increase in future CO2 rich atmospheres? An analysis of diurnal courses of CO2 uptake under free-air concentration enrichment (FACE)

Author: Leakey, A.D.B.; Bernacchi, C.J.; Dohleman, F.G.; Ort, D.R.; Long, S.P. Description: The C4 grass Zea mays (maize or corn) is the third most important food crop globally in terms of production and demand is predicted to increase 45% from 1997 to 2020. However, the effects of rising CO2 upon C4 plants, and Z. mays specifically, are not sufficiently understood to allow accurate predictions of future crop production. A rainfed, field experiment utilizing free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) technology in the primary area of global corn production (US Corn Belt) was…

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