Motor imagery BCI for upper limb stroke rehabilitation: An evaluation of the EEG recordings using coherence analysis

Author: Gavrilenko, A.F.; Rybak, I.N.; Boris, V.M.; Kuz’minskaia, A.F.; Mikolyshin, L.I. Description: Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology has the potential as a post-stroke rehabilitation tool, and the efficacy of the technology is most often demonstrated through output peripherals such as robots, orthosis and computers. In this study, the EEG signals recorded during the course of upper limb stroke rehabilitaion using motor imagery BCI were analyzed to better understand the effect of BCI therapy for post-stroke rehabilitation. The stroke patients recruited underwent 10 sessions of 1-hour BCI with robotic feedback for 2…

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Antioxidant role of glutathione S-transferases: protection against oxidant toxicity and regulation of stress-mediated apoptosis

Author: Sharma, R.; Yang, Y.; Sharma, A.; Awasthi, S.; Awasthi, Y.C. Description: It has been known that glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) can reduce lipid hydroperoxides through their Se-independent glutathione peroxidase activity and that these enzymes can also detoxify lipid peroxidation end products such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). In this article, recent studies suggesting that the Alpha class GSTs provide a formidable defense against oxidative stress are critically evaluated and the role of these enzymes in the regulation of oxidative stress-mediated signaling is reviewed. Available evidence from earlier studies together with results of…

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Restless REM Sleep Impedes Overnight Amygdala Adaptation

Author: Wassing, R.; Lakbila-Kamal, O.; Ramautar, J.R.; Stoffers, D.; Schalkwijk, F.; Van Someren, E.J.W. Description: Animal studies show that insufficient silencing of the locus coeruleus (LC) during REM sleep impairs sleep-related brain plasticity. Restless REM sleep, a characteristic of several psychiatric disorders, likely reflects insufficient LC silencing. We investigated whether endogenous REM sleep interruptions interfere with overnight reorganization of limbic circuits in human volunteers with a wide range of insomnia severity, from no insomnia complaints to fulfilling community-sample criteria for insomnia disorder. We induced a self-conscious emotion during two functional…

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Disentangling Maternal Depression and Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy as Risks for Autism in Children

Author: Oberlander, T.F.; Zwaigenbaum, L. Description: Over the past decade, scientific and public attention has focused on reports of an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder in children of depressed mothers treated with an antidepressant medication during pregnancy.1 However, evidence supporting an association between in utero exposure to antidepressant medications, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes remains inconclusive.2 Methodological constraints limit the ability to account for the effect of variations in severity of maternal depression, and randomizing exposure to an antidepressant medication during pregnancy would not…

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Social network typologies and mental health among older adults

Author: Fiori, K.L.; Antonucci, T.C.; Cortina, K.S. Description: In this study, we test the robustness of previous social network research and extend this work to determine if support quality is one mechanism by which network types predict mental health. Participants included 1,669 adults aged 60 or older from the Americans’ Changing Lives study. Using cluster analysis, we found diverse, family, and friends network types, which is consistent with the work by Litwin from 2001. However, we found two types of restricted networks, rather than just one: a nonfamily network and…

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The future of mucosal immunology: studying an integrated system-wide organ

Author: Gill, N.; Wlodarska, M.; Finlay, B.B. Description: Over the next 10 years, it will be important to shift the focus of mucosal immunology research to make further advances. Examination of the mucosal immune system as a global organ, rather than as a group of individual components, will identify and characterize relationships between mucosal sites. Subject Headings: Adaptive Immunity; Animals; Cell Communication; Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology; Host-Pathogen Interactions; Humans; Immune Tolerance; Immunity, Mucosal/physiology; Metagenome/immunology; Models, Immunological; Mucous Membrane/immunology; Respiratory System/immunology Keywords: The future of mucosal immunology: studying an integrated system-wide organ Publication…

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Preliminary Evidence for Training-Induced Changes of Morphology and Phantom Limb Pain

Author: Preissler, S.; Thielemann, D.; Dietrich, C.; Hofmann, G.O.; Miltner, W.H.R.; Weiss, T. Description: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a special prosthetic training in phantom limb pain patients aimed at increasing the functional use of the prosthesis leads to neural morphological plasticity of brain structures and a reduction in phantom limb pain. For chronic pain disorders, it was shown that morphological alterations due to pain might become at least partially reversed by pain therapies. Phantom limb pain is a chronic pain disorder that is frequently followed…

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Chronic stress as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease

Author: Machado, A.; Herrera, A.J.; de Pablos, R.M.; Espinosa-Oliva, A.M.; Sarmiento, M.; Ayala, A.; Venero, J.L.; Santiago, M.; Villaran, R.F.; Delgado-Cortes, M.J.; Arguelles, S.; Cano, J. Description: This review aims to point out that chronic stress is able to accelerate the appearance of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), proposing the former as a risk factor for the latter. Firstly, in the introduction we describe some human epidemiological studies pointing out the possibility that chronic stress could increase the incidence, or the rate of appearance of AD. Afterwards, we try to justify these…

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Stereotype Threat, Identification with Academics, and Withdrawal from School: Why the most successful students of colour might be most likely to withdraw

Author: Osborne, J.W.; Walker, C. Description: Claude Steele’s stereotype threat hypothesis posits that when there are negative stereotypes about the intellectual capacity of certain (stigmatised) groups, members of that group suffer aversive consequences; group members who are most strongly identified with the stigmatised domain in question (e.g., intellectual or academic ability) are those most likely to suffer the effects of stereotype threat. In education, it is widely held that personal investment in schooling should lead to more positive outcomes. However, highly-invested individuals will most keenly experience the negative effects of…

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The evaluation of the genotoxicity of two food preservatives: sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate

Author: Zengin, N.; Yuzbasioglu, D.; Unal, F.; Yilmaz, S.; Aksoy, H. Description: In this study, the genotoxic effects of sodium benzoate (SB) and potassium benzoate (PB) were investigated in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes using chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and micronuclei (MN). The level of nuclear DNA damage of SB and PB were also evaluated using the comet assay. The lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations of SB (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mug/ml) and PB (62.5, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 mug/ml). A significant increase was…

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