No level of alcohol consumption improves health

Author: Burton, Robyn; Sheron, Nick Description: By use of methodological enhancements of previous iterations, the systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016, is the most comprehensive estimate of the global burden of alcohol use to date. The GBD 2016 Alcohol Collaborators clearly demonstrate the substantial, and larger than previously estimated, contribution of alcohol to death, disability, and ill health, globally. In 2016, alcohol use was the seventh leading risk factor for both deaths and disability-adjusted life-years…

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Alcohol and Cardiovascular Disease: How Much is Too Much?

Author: Toma, Augustin; Pare, Guillaume; Leong, Darryl P. Description: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Previous research suggests that low-moderate alcohol consumption may have cardioprotective effects, while heavy or binge-pattern drinking is harmful. New evidence and research methodology may inform safe thresholds of alcohol use. This review examines recent evidence regarding alcohol’s effect on cardiovascular disease, with a special consideration of pattern, drink type, and total quantity. RECENT FINDINGS: New epidemiologic research confirms the potential harmful cardiovascular effects of heavy episodic alcohol use and does not support the previous observation that low-moderate alcohol…

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The neurocognitive effects of alcohol on adolescents and college students

Author: Zeigler, Donald W.; Wang, Claire C.; Yoast, Richard A.; Dickinson, Barry D.; McCaffree, Mary Anne; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Sterling, Melvyn L.; Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association Description: BACKGROUND: Adolescents and college students are at high risk for initiating alcohol use and high-risk (or binge) drinking. There is a growing body of literature on neurotoxic and harmful cognitive effects of drinking by young people. On average, youths take their first drink at age 12 years. METHODS: MEDLINE search on neurologic and cognitive effects of underage drinking. RESULTS: Problematic…

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Acquisition of abstract concepts is influenced by emotional valence

Author: Ponari, Marta; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Vigliocco, Gabriella Description: There is considerable lack of evidence concerning the linguistic and cognitive skills underpinning abstract vocabulary acquisition. The present study considers the role of emotional valence in providing an embodied learning experience in which to anchor abstract meanings. First, analyses of adult ratings of age-of-acquisition, concreteness and valence demonstrate that abstract words acquired early tend to be emotionally valenced. Second, auditory Lexical Decision accuracies of children aged 6-7, 8-9, and 10-11 years (n = 20 per group) complement these analyses, demonstrating that…

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Impact of riparian buffer zones on water quality and associated management considerations

Author: Anbumozhi, Venkatachalam; Radhakrishnan, Jay; Yamaji, Eiji Description: Recent attention has focused on riparian forest buffer systems for filtering sediment, nutrients, and pesticides entering from upland agricultural fields. This paper summarizes the results of a field monitoring study done in Tokachikawa watershed in Hokkaido, Japan, Cisadane, Cianten and Citamyang sub-watersheds in Indonesia and Cauvery watershed, India to quantify the impact of riparian buffer zones on changes in stream water quality. A watershed approach was used to compare land use indicators – uplands, forests, riparian forest, livestock areas – to a…

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The good, the bad, and the neutral: The influence of emotional valence on young children’s recall

Author: Van Bergen, Penny; Wall, Jacqui; Salmon, Karen Description: Despite the important theoretical and applied implications, there is limited experimental research investigating the influence of emotional valence on young children’s verbal recall of everyday emotional experiences. This issue was addressed in the current study. Specifically, we investigated young children’s (5–6 years) recall of emotional experiences presented in six brief stories. To address methodological limitations of the small body of existing literature, we adopted a within participants design in which story content was matched and valence (positive, negative, neutral) was counterbalanced…

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The valence and the functions of autobiographical memories: Does intensity matter?

Author: Wolf, Tabea; Pociunaite, Justina; Hoehne, Sophie; Zimprich, Daniel Description: Autobiographical memories serve psychosocial functions in daily life and the use of memories is related to their valence. In the present study, we examined whether functions are also related to the intensity of positive and negative memories. Our sample included 110 participants (57-89 years of age). Memories were prompted with 30 emotionally neutral cue words. Participants rated the emotional quality of each memory and indicated how frequently they had recalled it for self-continuity, directing behavior, social-bonding, and mood-enhancement. We used multilevel…

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Velcrin-induced selective cleavage of tRNALeu(TAA) by SLFN12 causes cancer cell death

Author: Lee, Sooncheol; Hoyt, Stephanie; Wu, Xiaoyun; Garvie, Colin; McGaunn, Joseph; Shekhar, Mrinal; Totzl, Marcus; Rees, Matthew G.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Meyerson, Matthew; Greulich, Heidi Description: Velcrin compounds kill cancer cells expressing high levels of phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) and Schlafen family member 12 (SLFN12) by inducing complex formation between these two proteins, but the mechanism of cancer cell killing by the PDE3A-SLFN12 complex is not fully understood. Here, we report that the physiological substrate of SLFN12 RNase is tRNALeu(TAA). SLFN12 selectively digests tRNALeu(TAA), and velcrin treatment promotes the cleavage of…

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Ecological Determinants of Species Loss in Remnant Prairies

Author: Leach, Mark K.; Givnish, Thomas J. Description: Recensuses of 54 Wisconsin prairie remnants showed that 8 to 60 percent of the original plant species were lost from individual remnants over a 32- to 52-year period. The pattern of species loss was consistent with the proposed effects of fire suppression caused by landscape fragmentation. Short, small-seeded, or nitrogen-fixing plants showed the heaviest losses, as did species growing in the wettest, most productive environments. The interruption of landscape-scale processes (such as wildfire) by fragmentation is an often overlooked mechanism that may…

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Horizontal and Vertical Dimensions of Individualism and Collectivism: A Theoretical and Measurement Refinement

Author: Singelis, Theodore M.; Triandis, Harry C.; Bhawuk, Dharm P. S.; Gelfand, Michele J. Description: In developing a new scale, this article makes theoretical and measurement distinctions between vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism. Vertical collectivism includes perceiving the self as a part (or an aspect) of a collective and accepting inequalities within the collective. Horizontal collectivism includes perceiving the self as a part of the collective, but seeing all members of the collective as the same; thus equality is stressed. Vertical individualism includes the conception of an autonomous individual…

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