Knowledge, Perceptions, and Motivations for Contraception: Influence on Teens’ Contraceptive Consistency

Author: Ryan, S.; Franzetta, K.; Manlove, J. Description: Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors examine the association between contraceptive use patterns in teens’ first sexual relationships and their knowledge of, perceptions of, and motivations for contraception and pregnancy prevention. Results from logistic regression analyses show that knowledge, perceptions, and motivations surrounding sexual activity and contraception are indeed important predictors of contraceptive outcomes, and they influence males and females differently. For both genders, perceived ease of access to contraceptives is associated with increased odds of…

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From stereotype threat to stereotype threats: implications of a multi-threat framework for causes, moderators, mediators, consequences, and interventions

Author: Shapiro, J.R.; Neuberg, S.L. Description: More than 100 articles have examined the construct of stereotype threat and its implications. However, stereotype threat seems to mean different things to different researchers and has been employed to describe and explain processes and phenomena that appear to be fundamentally distinct. Complementing existing models, the authors posit a Multi-Threat Framework in which six qualitatively distinct stereotype threats arise from the intersection of two dimensions–the target of the threat (the self/one’s group) and the source of the threat (the self/outgroup others/ingroup others). The authors…

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A randomized, double-blind evaluation of D-cycloserine or alprazolam combined with virtual reality exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans

Author: Rothbaum, B.O.; Price, M.; Jovanovic, T.; Norrholm, S.D.; Gerardi, M.; Dunlop, B.; Davis, M.; Bradley, B.; Duncan, E.J.; Rizzo, A.; Ressler, K.J. Description: OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure augmented with D-cycloserine or alprazolam, compared with placebo, in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to military trauma. METHOD: After an introductory session, five sessions of virtual reality exposure were augmented with D-cycloserine (50 mg) or alprazolam (0.25 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial for 156 Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with PTSD. RESULTS:…

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The Army study to assess risk and resilience in service members (Army STARRS)

Author: Ursano, R.J.; Colpe, L.J.; Heeringa, S.G.; Kessler, R.C.; Schoenbaum, M.; Stein, M.B. Description: IMPORTANCE/OBJECTIVE: Although the suicide rate in the U.S. Army has traditionally been below age-gender matched civilian rates, it has climbed steadily since the beginning of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts and since 2008 has exceeded the demographically matched civilian rate. The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members (Army STARRS) is a multicomponent epidemiological and neurobiological study designed to generate actionable evidence-based recommendations to reduce Army suicides and increase knowledge about risk and…

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Early PTSD symptom trajectories: persistence, recovery, and response to treatment: results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS)

Author: Galatzer-Levy, I.R.; Ankri, Y.; Freedman, S.; Israeli-Shalev, Y.; Roitman, P.; Gilad, M.; Shalev, A.Y. Description: CONTEXT: Uncovering heterogeneities in the progression of early PTSD symptoms can improve our understanding of the disorder’s pathogenesis and prophylaxis. OBJECTIVES: To describe discrete symptom trajectories and examine their relevance for preventive interventions. DESIGN: Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM) of data from a randomized controlled study of early treatment. LGMM identifies latent longitudinal trajectories by exploring discrete mixture distributions underlying observable data. SETTING: Hadassah Hospital unselectively receives trauma survivors from Jerusalem and vicinity. PARTICIPANTS:…

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A multisite analysis of the fluctuating course of posttraumatic stress disorder

Author: Bryant, R.A.; O’Donnell, M.L.; Creamer, M.; McFarlane, A.C.; Silove, D. Description: IMPORTANCE: Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accounts for approximately 25% of PTSD cases. Current models do not adequately explain the delayed increases in PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. OBJECTIVE: To test the roles of initial psychiatric reactions, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), and ongoing stressors on delayed-onset PTSD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this prospective cohort study, patients were selected from recent admissions to 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia. A total of 1084 traumatically injured patients were…

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Early intervention may prevent the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized pilot civilian study with modified prolonged exposure

Author: Rothbaum, B.O.; Kearns, M.C.; Price, M.; Malcoun, E.; Davis, M.; Ressler, K.J.; Lang, D.; Houry, D. Description: BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major public health concern with long-term sequelae. There are no accepted interventions delivered in the immediate aftermath of trauma. This study tested an early intervention aimed at modifying the memory to prevent the development of PTSD before memory consolidation. METHODS: Patients (n = 137) were randomly assigned to receive three sessions of an early intervention beginning in the emergency department compared with an assessment only…

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Posttraumatic stress disorder in the US veteran population: results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study

Author: Wisco, B.E.; Marx, B.P.; Wolf, E.J.; Miller, M.W.; Southwick, S.M.; Pietrzak, R.H. Description: OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders and identify correlates of PTSD in a contemporary, nationally representative sample of US veterans. METHOD: Data were analyzed from Wave 1 of the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study, a cross-sectional, retrospective, web-based survey of a population-based sample of 3,157 US veterans conducted between October and December 2011. The main outcome measure was probable lifetime PTSD, which was assessed by using…

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Cross-cultural variation of speech-accompanying gesture: A review

Author: Kita, S. Description: This article reviews the literature on cross-cultural variation of gestures. Four factors governing the variation were identified. The first factor is the culture-specific convention for form-meaning associations. This factor is involved in well-known cross-cultural differences in emblem gestures (e.g., the OK-sign), as well as pointing gestures. The second factor is culture-specific spatial cognition. Representational gestures (i.e., iconic and deictic gestures) that express spatial contents or metaphorically express temporal concepts differ across cultures, reflecting the cognitive differences in how direction, relative location and different axes in space…

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Soundselves: An acoustemology of sound and self in the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary

Author: Rice, T. Description: Subject headings: Publication year: 2003 Journal or book title: Anthropology Today Volume: 19 Issue: 4 Pages: 4-9 Find the full text : https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tom-Rice-3/publication/230061982_Soundselves_An_acoustemology_of_sound_and_self_in_the_Edinburgh_Royal_Infirmary/links/5c41f21492851c22a37eb345/Soundselves-An-acoustemology-of-sound-and-self-in-the-Edinburgh-Royal-Infirmary.pdf Find more like this one (cited by): https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=15769013255566507564&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en Type: Journal Article Serial number: 1301

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