Small-Molecule Prodigiosin Restores p53 Tumor Suppressor Activity in Chemoresistant Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells via c-Jun-Mediated delta-Np73 Inhibition and p73 Activation

Author: Prabhu, Varun V.; Hong, Bo; Allen, Joshua E.; Zhang, Shengliang; Lulla, Amriti R.; Dicker, David T.; El-Deiry, Wafik S. Description: Tumor suppressor p53 is frequently mutated or inactivated in colorectal cancer. In contrast, p53 family member p73 is rarely mutated in colorectal cancer and p73 activation elicits p53-like tumor suppression. Colorectal cancer stem cells (CRCSC) comprise a rare self-renewing subpopulation that contributes to tumor maintenance and chemoresistance. p53 restoration is known to target CRCSCs, but p73 restoration in CRCSCs has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the…

See more and a link to full text

Ethical and social considerations of stem cell research

Author: McLaren, A. Description: Much recent interest has focused on whether stem cell therapy could alleviate or even cure common degenerative diseases. This has been accompanied by debate on the ethics of destructive research on early human embryos. Stem cells derived from various sources raise different ethical issues, but their contribution to medical research could be immense. Any use of stem cells should be subject to appropriate scientific and ethical review. Subject headings: Bioethics; Embryo, Mammalian; Ethics, Medical; Humans; Morals; Public Policy; Research; Sociology; Stem Cells; Therapy Publication year: 2001…

See more and a link to full text

Stem cell therapy in Alzheimer’s disease: possible benefits and limiting drawbacks

Author: Alipour, Masoume; Nabavi, Seyed Massood; Arab, Leila; Vosough, Massoud; Pakdaman, Hossein; Ehsani, Ehsan; Shahpasand, Koorosh Description: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death globally and the main reason for dementia in elderly people. AD is a long-term and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that steadily worsens memory and communicating skills eventually leads to a disabled person of performing simple daily tasks. Unfortunately, numerous clinical trials exploring new therapeutic drugs have encountered disappointing outcomes in terms of improved cognitive performance since they are not capable of halting or stimulating…

See more and a link to full text

Breast cancer stem cells, EMT and therapeutic targets

Author: Kotiyal, S.; Bhattacharya, S. Description: A small heterogeneous population of breast cancer cells acts as seeds to induce new tumor growth. These seeds or breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) exhibit great phenotypical plasticity which allows them to undergo “epithelial to mesenchymal transition” (EMT) at the site of primary tumor and a future reverse transition. Apart from metastasis they are also responsible for maintaining the tumor and conferring it with drug and radiation resistance and a tendency for post-treatment relapse. Many of the signaling pathways involved in induction of EMT…

See more and a link to full text

Autophagy Supports Breast Cancer Stem Cell Maintenance by Regulating IL6 Secretion

Author: Maycotte, Paola; Jones, Kenneth L.; Goodall, Megan L.; Thorburn, Jacqueline; Thorburn, Andrew Description: Autophagy is a mechanism by which cells degrade cellular material to provide nutrients and energy for survival during stress. The autophagy is thought to be a critical process for cancer stem cell (CSC) or tumor-initiating cell maintenance but the mechanisms by which autophagy supports survival of CSCs remain poorly understood. In this study, inhibition of autophagy by knockdown of ATG7 or BECN1 modified the CD44(+)/CD24(low/-) population in breast cancer cells by regulating CD24 and IL6 secretion….

See more and a link to full text

Haematopoietic stem cell induction by somite-derived endothelial cells controlled by meox1

Author: Nguyen, Phong Dang; Hollway, Georgina Elizabeth; Sonntag, Carmen; Miles, Lee Barry; Hall, Thomas Edward; Berger, Silke; Fernandez, Kristine Joy; Gurevich, David Baruch; Cole, Nicholas James; Alaei, Sara; Ramialison, Mirana; Sutherland, Robert Lyndsay; Polo, Jose Maria; Lieschke, Graham John; Currie, Peter David Description: Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are self-renewing stem cells capable of replenishing all blood lineages. In all vertebrate embryos that have been studied, definitive HSCs are generated initially within the dorsal aorta (DA) of the embryonic vasculature by a series of poorly understood inductive events. Previous studies have…

See more and a link to full text

Jam1a-Jam2a interactions regulate haematopoietic stem cell fate through Notch signalling

Author: Kobayashi, Isao; Kobayashi-Sun, Jingjing; Kim, Albert D.; Pouget, Claire; Fujita, Naonobu; Suda, Toshio; Traver, David Description: Notch signalling plays a key role in the generation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during vertebrate development and requires intimate contact between signal-emitting and signal-receiving cells, although little is known regarding when, where and how these intercellular events occur. We previously reported that the somitic Notch ligands, Dlc and Dld, are essential for HSC specification. It has remained unclear, however, how these somitic requirements are connected to the later emergence of HSCs from…

See more and a link to full text

Discrete Notch signaling requirements in the specification of hematopoietic stem cells

Author: Kim, Albert D.; Melick, Chase H.; Clements, Wilson K.; Stachura, David L.; Distel, Martin; Panakova, Daniela; MacRae, Calum; Mork, Lindsey A.; Crump, J. Gage; Traver, David Description: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) require multiple molecular inputs for proper specification, including activity of the Notch signaling pathway. A requirement for the Notch1 and dispensability of the Notch2 receptor has been demonstrated in mice, but the role of the remaining Notch receptors has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate that three of the four Notch receptors are independently required for the specification…

See more and a link to full text

Social isolation rearing-induced impairment of the hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with deficits in spatial memory and emotion-related behaviors in juvenile mice

Author: Ibi, Daisuke; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Koike, Hiroyuki; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Tsuritani, Katsuki; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Taku; Yoneda, Yukio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi Description: Experiences during brain development may influence the pathogenesis of developmental disorders. Thus, social isolation (SI) rearing after weaning is a useful animal model for studying the pathological mechanisms of such psychiatric diseases. In this study, we examined the effect of SI on neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) relating to memory and emotion-related behaviors. When newly divided cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) before SI,…

See more and a link to full text

Human Adult Neurogenesis: Evidence and Remaining Questions

Author: Kempermann, G.; Gage, F.H.; Aigner, L.; Song, H.; Curtis, M.A.; Thuret, S.; Kuhn, H.G.; Jessberger, S.; Frankland, P.W.; Cameron, H.A.; Gould, E.; Hen, R.; Abrous, D.N.; Toni, N.; Schinder, A.F.; Zhao, X.; Lucassen, P.J.; Frisen, J. Description: Renewed discussion about whether or not adult neurogenesis exists in the human hippocampus, and the nature and strength of the supporting evidence, has been reignited by two prominently published reports with opposite conclusions. Here, we summarize the state of the field and argue that there is currently no reason to abandon the…

See more and a link to full text
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.