Incidence of class 1 integron and other antibiotic resistance determinants in Aeromonas spp. from rainbow trout farms in Australia

Author: Ndi, O.L.; Barton, M.D. Description: There is limited information on antibiotic resistance determinants present in bacteria of aquaculture origin in Australia. The presence of integron and other resistance determinants was investigated in 90 Aeromonas isolates derived from nine freshwater trout farms in Victoria (Australia). Polymerase chain reaction was carried out for the detection of integrase genes Int1, Int2 and Int3, gene cassette array, integron-associated aadA, sul1 and qac1 genes, streptomycin resistance genes strA-strB, beta-lactamase resistance genes bla(TEM) and bla(SHV) , and tetracycline resistance genes tetA-E and tetM. Clonal analysis…

See more and a link to full text

A comprehensive review of the antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential of essential oils and their chemical constituents against drug-resistant microbial pathogens

Author: Tariq, Saika; Wani, Saira; Rasool, Waseem; Shafi, Khushboo; Bhat, Muzzaffar Ahmad; Prabhakar, Anil; Shalla, Aabid Hussain; Rather, Manzoor A. Description: Essential oils are a complex mixture of odoriferous, volatile organic compounds. There are an extensive number of published articles which highlight the antimicrobial action of a variety of essential oils from various parts of the world. The main aim of this review article is to compile these antimicrobial essential oils and their constituents from reliable sources and put them together. The published literature indicates that essential oils possess a…

See more and a link to full text

The Use of Bacteriophages in the Poultry Industry

Author: Żbikowska, K.; Michalczuk, M. & Dolka, B. Description: The emergence of multidrug-resistant infections and antibiotic failures have raised concerns over human and veterinary medicine worldwide. Poultry production has had to confront the problems of an alarming increase in bacterial resistance, including zoonotic pathogens. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis have been the most frequently reported human foodborne diseases linked to poultry. This situation has strongly stimulated a renewal of scientists’ interest in bacteriophages (phages) since the beginning of the 21st century. Bacteriophages are the…

See more and a link to full text

Copper and Antibiotics: Discovery, Modes of Action, and Opportunities for Medicinal Applications

Author: Dalecki, Alex G.; Crawford, Cameron L.; Wolschendorf, Frank Description: Copper is a ubiquitous element in the environment as well as living organisms, with its redox capabilities and complexation potential making it indispensable for many cellular functions. However, these same properties can be highly detrimental to prokaryotes and eukaryotes when not properly controlled, damaging many biomolecules including DNA, lipids, and proteins. To restrict free copper concentrations, all bacteria have developed mechanisms of resistance, sequestering and effluxing labile copper to minimize its deleterious effects. This weakness is actively exploited by phagocytes,…

See more and a link to full text

The role of class I integrons in the dissemination of sulfonamide resistance genes in the Pearl River and Pearl River Estuary, South China

Author: Chen, B.; Liang, X.; Nie, X.; Huang, X.; Zou, S.; Li, X. Description: Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), as a newly emerging contaminant, are unique because they are disseminated through horizontal gene transfer in the environment. In the present study, a class 1 integron gene (int1) and various ARGs (sul1, sul2, sul3, qnrS, and ermB) were measured in water and sediment samples from the Pearl River (PR) to the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), where there is a distinct gradient in anthropogenic impact. The int1, sul1, and sul2 genes were detected…

See more and a link to full text

Petroleum exploitation enriches the sulfonamide resistance gene sul2 in offshore sediments

Author: Wang, Jing; Zhou, Jiti Description: Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been considered as emerging contaminants in nature owing to their wide distribution and human health risk. Anthropogenic activities can increase the diversity and abundance of ARGs and promote their spread in environment. Offshore environment is affected by multiple types of anthropogenic activities, of which excessive accumulation of petroleum substances poses a serious threat. Our previous experimental study has demonstrated that petroleum can increase the abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes (SRGs) in the seawater through horizontal gene transfer. However, the…

See more and a link to full text

Microplastic pollution increases gene exchange in aquatic ecosystems

Author: Arias-Andres, Maria; Klumper, Uli; Rojas-Jimenez, Keilor; Grossart, Hans-Peter Description: Pollution by microplastics in aquatic ecosystems is accumulating at an unprecedented scale, emerging as a new surface for biofilm formation and gene exchange. In this study, we determined the permissiveness of aquatic bacteria towards a model antibiotic resistance plasmid, comparing communities that form biofilms on microplastics vs. those that are free-living. We used an exogenous and red-fluorescent E. coli donor strain to introduce the green-fluorescent broad-host-range plasmid pKJK5 which encodes for trimethoprim resistance. We demonstrate an increased frequency of plasmid…

See more and a link to full text

Microfluidic droplet application for bacterial surveillance in fresh-cut produce wash waters

Author: Harmon, J.B.; Gray, H.K.; Young, C.C.; Schwab, K.J. Description: Foodborne contamination and associated illness in the United States is responsible for an estimated 48 million cases per year. Increased food demand, global commerce of perishable foods, and the growing threat of antibiotic resistance are driving factors elevating concern for food safety. Foodborne illness is often associated with fresh-cut, ready-to-eat produce commodities due to the perishable nature of the product and relatively minimal processing from farm to the consumer. The research presented here optimizes and evaluates the utility of microfluidic…

See more and a link to full text

Survival of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. derived from pig slurry in soils of different texture

Author: Cools, D.; Merckx, R.; Vlassak, K.; Verhaegen, J. Description: Survival in soil of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. derived from pig slurry was examined in three soils of different texture (a sandy soil, a loamy soil and a loamy sand), at three different incubation temperatures (5, 15 and 25 degrees C) and three different soil moisture contents (60, 80 and 100% of field capacity). Bacterial survival was quantified by dilution plating on selective media. Both species survived remarkably better at 5 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. Numbers…

See more and a link to full text

Citrus flavonoid represses Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and motility in S. Typhimurium LT2

Author: Vikram, A.; Jesudhasan, P.R.; Jayaprakasha, G.K.; Pillai, S.D.; Jayaraman, A.; Patil, B.S. Description: Salmonellosis is one of the leading health problems worldwide. With the rise of drug resistance strains, it has become imperative to identify alternative strategies to counter bacterial infection. Natural products were used historically to identify novel compounds with various bioactivities. Citrus species is a rich source of flavonoids. Naringenin, a flavonone, is present predominantly in grapefruit. Previously we have demonstrated that naringenin is potent inhibitor of cell-cell signaling. The current study was undertaken to understand the…

See more and a link to full text