Fate and transport of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genes following land application of manure waste

Author: Chee-Sanford, J.C.; Mackie, R.I.; Koike, S.; Krapac, I.G.; Lin, Y.-F.; Yannarell, A.C.; Maxwell, S.; Aminov, R.I. Description: Antibiotics are used in animal livestock production for therapeutic treatment of disease and at subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. It is estimated that approximately 75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in waste. Antibiotic resistance selection occurs among gastrointestinal bacteria, which are also excreted in manure and stored in waste holding systems. Land application of animal waste is a common disposal method used…

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Co-selection of multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens in metal and microplastic contaminated environments: An emerging health threat

Author: Imran, Md; Das, Kirti Ranjan; Naik, Milind Mohan Description: Misuse/over use of antibiotics increases the threats to human health since this is a main reason behind evolution of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. However, metals such as mercury, lead, zinc, copper and cadmium are accumulating to critical concentration in the environment and triggering co-selection of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The co-selection of metal driven antibiotic resistance in bacteria is achieved through co-resistance or cross resistance. Metal driven antibiotic resistant determinants evolved in bacteria and present on same mobile genetic elements…

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Antibiotic treatments and microbes in the gut

Author: Macfarlane, S. Description: Antibiotic therapies are important in combating disease-causing microorganisms and maintaining host health. It is widely accepted that exposure of the gut microbiota to antibiotics can lead to decreased susceptibility and the development of multi-drug-resistant disease-causing organisms, which can be a major clinical problem. It is also important to consider that antibiotics not only target pathogenic bacteria in the gut, but also can have damaging effects on the ecology of commensal species. This can reduce intrinsic colonization resistance and contribute to problems with antibiotic resistance, including lateral…

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Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense

Author: Ubeda, C.; Pamer, E.G. Description: The gastrointestinal tract microbiota contributes to the development and differentiation of the mammalian immune system. The composition of the microbiota affects immune responses and affects susceptibility to infection by intestinal pathogens and development of allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotic administration, while facilitating clearance of targeted infections, also perturbs commensal microbial communities and decreases host resistance to antibiotic-resistant microbes. Here, we review recent advances that begin to define the interactions between complex intestinal microbial populations and the mammalian immune system and how this relation…

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Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure wastewater as influenced by three swine management systems

Author: Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; McLaughlin, M.R. Description: The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vast changes to the microbial biota and ecological structure of both the pig and waste manure lagoon wastewater. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible that CAFOs can enrich antibiotic resistant bacteria or pathogens based on farm type, thereby influencing the impact imparted by the land application of its respective wastewater. The purpose of this study was to measure the microbial constituents of…

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Veterinary use and antibiotic resistance

Author: Teuber, M. Description: Globally, an estimated 50% of all antimicrobials serve veterinary purposes. Bacteria that inevitably develop antibiotic resistance in animals comprise food-borne pathogens, opportunistic pathogens and commensal bacteria. The same antibiotic resistance genes and gene transfer mechanisms can be found in the microfloras of animals and humans. Direct contact, food and water link animal and human habitats. The accumulation of resistant bacteria by the use of antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary medicine and the spread of such bacteria via agriculture and direct contamination are documented. Subject headings: Agriculture;…

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A Hundred Years of Bacteriophages: Can Phages Replace Antibiotics in Agriculture and Aquaculture?

Author: Sieiro, C.; Areal-Hermida, L.; Pichardo-Gallardo, Á.; Almuiña-González, R.; de Miguel, T.; Sánchez, S.; Sánchez-Pérez, Á. & Villa, T. G. Description: Agriculture, together with aquaculture, supplies most of the foodstuffs required by the world human population to survive. Hence, bacterial diseases affecting either agricultural crops, fish, or shellfish not only cause large economic losses to producers but can even create food shortages, resulting in malnutrition, or even famine, in vulnerable populations. Years of antibiotic use in the prevention and the treatment of these infections have greatly contributed to the emergence…

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Bacterial antibiotic resistance studies using in vitro dynamic models: Population analysis vs. susceptibility testing as endpoints of mutant enrichment

Author: Firsov, A.A.; Strukova, E.N.; Portnoy, Y.A.; Shlykova, D.S.; Zinner, S.H. Description: Emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance is usually characterized either by population analysis or susceptibility testing. To compare these endpoints in their ability to demonstrate clear relationships with the ratio of 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) to the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), enrichment of ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of four clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied in an in vitro dynamic model that simulates mono-exponential pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin over a wide range of the AUC24/MIC ratios. Each organism…

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Copper and Antibiotics: Discovery, Modes of Action, and Opportunities for Medicinal Applications

Author: Dalecki, Alex G.; Crawford, Cameron L.; Wolschendorf, Frank Description: Copper is a ubiquitous element in the environment as well as living organisms, with its redox capabilities and complexation potential making it indispensable for many cellular functions. However, these same properties can be highly detrimental to prokaryotes and eukaryotes when not properly controlled, damaging many biomolecules including DNA, lipids, and proteins. To restrict free copper concentrations, all bacteria have developed mechanisms of resistance, sequestering and effluxing labile copper to minimize its deleterious effects. This weakness is actively exploited by phagocytes,…

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A comprehensive review of the antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential of essential oils and their chemical constituents against drug-resistant microbial pathogens

Author: Tariq, Saika; Wani, Saira; Rasool, Waseem; Shafi, Khushboo; Bhat, Muzzaffar Ahmad; Prabhakar, Anil; Shalla, Aabid Hussain; Rather, Manzoor A. Description: Essential oils are a complex mixture of odoriferous, volatile organic compounds. There are an extensive number of published articles which highlight the antimicrobial action of a variety of essential oils from various parts of the world. The main aim of this review article is to compile these antimicrobial essential oils and their constituents from reliable sources and put them together. The published literature indicates that essential oils possess a…

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