Arabidopsis growth under prolonged high temperature and water deficit: independent or interactive effects?

Author: Vile, Denis; Pervent, Marjorie; Belluau, Michael; Vasseur, Francois; Bresson, Justine; Muller, Bertrand; Granier, Christine; Simonneau, Thierry Description: High temperature (HT) and water deficit (WD) are frequent environmental constraints restricting plant growth and productivity. These stresses often occur simultaneously in the field, but little is known about their combined impacts on plant growth, development and physiology. We evaluated the responses of 10 Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions to prolonged elevated air temperature (30 °C) and soil WD applied separately or in combination. Plant growth was significantly reduced under both stresses and…

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Biology in Bloom: A Primer on the Arabidopsis thaliana Model System

Author: Woodward, Andrew W.; Bartel, Bonnie Description: Arabidopsis thaliana could have easily escaped human scrutiny. Instead, Arabidopsis has become the most widely studied plant in modern biology despite its absence from the dinner table. Pairing diminutive stature and genome with prodigious resources and tools, Arabidopsis offers a window into the molecular, cellular, and developmental mechanisms underlying life as a multicellular photoautotroph. Many basic discoveries made using this plant have spawned new research areas, even beyond the verdant fields of plant biology. With a suite of resources and tools unmatched among…

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Altered expression of cytosolic/nuclear HSC70-1 molecular chaperone affects development and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

Author: Cazale, Anne-Claire; Clement, Mathilde; Chiarenza, Serge; Roncato, Marie-Anne; Pochon, Nathalie; Creff, Audrey; Marin, Elena; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Noel, Laurent D. Description: Molecular chaperones of the heat shock cognate 70 kDa (HSC70) family are highly conserved in all living organisms and assist nascent protein folding in normal physiological conditions as well as in biotic and abiotic stress conditions. In the absence of specific inhibitors or viable knockout mutants, cytosolic/nuclear HSC70-1 overexpression (OE) and mutants in the HSC70 co-chaperone SGT1 (suppressor of G(2)/M allele of skp1) were used as genetic tools to…

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Evidence that XRN4, an Arabidopsis homolog of exoribonuclease XRN1, preferentially impacts transcripts with certain sequences or in particular functional categories

Author: Rymarquis, Linda A.; Souret, Frederic F.; Green, Pamela J. Description: One of the major players controlling RNA decay is the cytoplasmic 5′-to-3′ exoribonuclease, which is conserved among eukaryotic organisms. In Arabidopsis, the 5′-to-3′ exoribonuclease XRN4 is involved in disease resistance, the response to ethylene, RNAi, and miRNA-mediated RNA decay. Curiously, XRN4 appears to display selectivity among its substrates because certain 3′ cleavage products formed by miRNA-mediated decay, such as from ARF10 mRNA, accumulate in the xrn4 mutant, whereas others, such as from AGO1, do not. To examine the nature…

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Novel features of the XRN-family in Arabidopsis: evidence that AtXRN4, one of several orthologs of nuclear Xrn2p/Rat1p, functions in the cytoplasm

Author: Kastenmayer, J. P.; Green, P. J. Description: The 5′-3′ exoribonucleases Xrn1p and Xrn2p/Rat1p function in the degradation and processing of several classes of RNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Xrn1p is the main enzyme catalyzing cytoplasmic mRNA degradation in multiple decay pathways, whereas Xrn2p/Rat1p functions in the processing of rRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in the nucleus. Much less is known about the XRN-like proteins of multicellular eukaryotes; however, differences in their activities could explain differences in mRNA degradation between multicellular and unicellular eukaryotes. One such difference is the lack…

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Effects of low and elevated CO2 partial pressure on growth and reproduction of Arabidopsis thaliana from different elevations

Author: Ward, J. K.; Strain, B. R. Description: Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure may have been as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene and is expected to increase from 35 to 70 Pa before the end of the next century. Low CO2 reduces the growth and reproduction of C3 plants, whereas elevated CO2 often increases growth and reproduction. Plants at high elevation are exposed to reduced CO2 partial pressure and may be better adapted to the low CO2 of the Pleistocene. We examined genotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana from different elevations…

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Environmental heat and salt stress induce transgenerational phenotypic changes in Arabidopsis thaliana

Author: Suter, Leonie; Widmer, Alex Description: Plants that can adapt their phenotype may be more likely to survive changing environmental conditions. Heritable epigenetic variation could provide a way to rapidly adapt to such changes. Here we tested whether environmental stress induces heritable, potentially adaptive phenotypic changes independent of genetic variation over few generations in Arabidopsis thaliana. We grew two accessions (Col-0, Sha-0) of A. thaliana for three generations under salt, heat and control conditions and tested for induced heritable phenotypic changes in the fourth generation (G4) and in reciprocal F1…

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An Arabidopsis chloroplast-targeted Hsp101 homologue, APG6, has an essential role in chloroplast development as well as heat-stress response

Author: Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Motohashi, Reiko; Kuromori, Takashi; Nagata, Noriko; Shinozaki, Kazuo Description: Analysis of albino or pale-green (apg) mutants is important for identifying nuclear genes responsible for chloroplast development and pigment synthesis. We have identified 38 apg mutants by screening 11,000 Arabidopsis Ds-tagged lines. One mutant, apg6, contains a Ds insertion in a gene encoding APG6 (ClpB3), a homologue of the heat-shock protein Hsp101 (ClpB1). We isolated somatic revertants and identified two Ds-tagged and one T-DNA-tagged mutant alleles of apg6. All three alleles gave the same pale-green phenotype. These results…

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Sugar/osmoticum levels modulate differential abscisic acid-independent expression of two stress-responsive sucrose synthase genes in Arabidopsis

Author: Dejardin, A.; Sokolov, L. N.; Kleczkowski, L. A. Description: Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism. Two Sus-encoding genes (Sus1 and Sus2) from Arabidopsis thaliana were found to be profoundly and differentially regulated in leaves exposed to environmental stresses (cold stress, drought or O(2) deficiency). Transcript levels of Sus1 increased on exposure to cold and drought, whereas Sus2 mRNA was induced specifically by O(2) deficiency. Both cold and drought exposures induced the accumulation of soluble sugars and caused a decrease in leaf osmotic potential, whereas O(2)…

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Auxin redistribution modulates plastic development of root system architecture under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

Author: Wang, Y.; Li, K.; Li, X. Description: Auxin plays an important role in the modulation of root system architecture. The effect of salinity on primary root growth has been extensively studied. However, how salinity affects lateral root development and its underlying molecular mechanisms is still unclear. Here, we report that high salt exposure suppresses lateral root initiation and organogenesis, resulting in the abortion of lateral root development. In contrast, salt stress markedly promotes lateral root elongation. Histochemical staining showed that the quantity of auxin and its patterning in roots…

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