Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals to antimicrobial growth promoters and related therapeutic agents in Denmark

Author: Aarestrup, F.M.; Bager, F.; Jensen, N.E.; Madsen, M.; Meyling, A.; Wegener, H.C. Description: This study was conducted to describe the occurrence of acquired resistance to antimicrobials used for growth promotion among bacteria isolated from swine, cattle and poultry in Denmark. Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). All antimicrobials used…

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Co-selection of multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens in metal and microplastic contaminated environments: An emerging health threat

Author: Imran, Md; Das, Kirti Ranjan; Naik, Milind Mohan Description: Misuse/over use of antibiotics increases the threats to human health since this is a main reason behind evolution of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. However, metals such as mercury, lead, zinc, copper and cadmium are accumulating to critical concentration in the environment and triggering co-selection of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The co-selection of metal driven antibiotic resistance in bacteria is achieved through co-resistance or cross resistance. Metal driven antibiotic resistant determinants evolved in bacteria and present on same mobile genetic elements…

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Rapid detection of Escherichia coli using bacteriophage-induced lysis and image analysis

Author: Yang, X.; Wisuthiphaet, N.; Young, G. M. & Nitin, N. Description: Rapid detection of bacterial pathogens is a critical unmet need for both food and environmental samples such as irrigation water. As a part of the Food safety Modernization Act (FSMA), The Produce Safety rule has established several requirements for testing for the presence of generic Escherichia coli in water, but the current method available for testing (EPA M1603) demands specified multiple colony verification and highly trained personnel to perform these tests. The purpose of the study was to…

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Stress responses as determinants of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria

Author: Poole, K. Description: Bacteria encounter a myriad of potentially growth-compromising conditions in nature and in hosts of pathogenic bacteria. These ‘stresses’ typically elicit protective and/or adaptive responses that serve to enhance bacterial survivability. Because they impact upon many of the same cellular components and processes that are targeted by antimicrobials, adaptive stress responses can influence antimicrobial susceptibility. In targeting and interfering with key cellular processes, antimicrobials themselves are ‘stressors’ to which protective stress responses have also evolved. Cellular responses to nutrient limitation (nutrient stress), oxidative and nitrosative stress, cell…

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Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure wastewater as influenced by three swine management systems

Author: Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; McLaughlin, M.R. Description: The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vast changes to the microbial biota and ecological structure of both the pig and waste manure lagoon wastewater. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible that CAFOs can enrich antibiotic resistant bacteria or pathogens based on farm type, thereby influencing the impact imparted by the land application of its respective wastewater. The purpose of this study was to measure the microbial constituents of…

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A Bacterial Pathogen Targets a Host Rab-Family GTPase Defense Pathway with a GAP

Author: Spano, Stefania; Gao, Xiang; Hannemann, Sebastian; Lara-Tejero, Mari­a; Galan, Jorge E. Description: Cell-autonomous defense mechanisms are potent strategies that protect individual cells against intracellular pathogens. The Rab-family GTPase Rab32 was previously shown to restrict the intracellular human pathogen Salmonella Typhi, but its potential broader role in antimicrobial defense remains unknown. We show that Rab32 represents a general cell-autonomous, antimicrobial defense that is counteracted by two Salmonella effectors. Mice lacking Rab-32 or its nucleotide exchange factor BLOC-3 are permissive to S. Typhi infection and exhibit increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium….

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Grapefruit juice and its furocoumarins inhibits autoinducer signaling and biofilm formation in bacteria

Author: Girennavar, B.; Cepeda, M.L.; Soni, K.A.; Vikram, A.; Jesudhasan, P.; Jayaprakasha, G.K.; Pillai, S.D.; Patil, B.S. Description: Cell-to-cell communications in bacteria mediated by small diffusible molecules termed as autoinducers (AI) are known to influence gene expression and pathogenicity. Oligopeptides and N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) are major AI molecules involved in intra-specific communication in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria respectively, whereas boronated-diester molecules (AI-2) are involved in inter-specific communication among both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Naturally occurring furocoumarins from grapefruit showed >95% inhibition of AI-1 and AI-2 activities based on the Vibrio…

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The Use of Bacteriophages in the Poultry Industry

Author: Żbikowska, K.; Michalczuk, M. & Dolka, B. Description: The emergence of multidrug-resistant infections and antibiotic failures have raised concerns over human and veterinary medicine worldwide. Poultry production has had to confront the problems of an alarming increase in bacterial resistance, including zoonotic pathogens. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis have been the most frequently reported human foodborne diseases linked to poultry. This situation has strongly stimulated a renewal of scientists’ interest in bacteriophages (phages) since the beginning of the 21st century. Bacteriophages are the…

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A Hundred Years of Bacteriophages: Can Phages Replace Antibiotics in Agriculture and Aquaculture?

Author: Sieiro, C.; Areal-Hermida, L.; Pichardo-Gallardo, Á.; Almuiña-González, R.; de Miguel, T.; Sánchez, S.; Sánchez-Pérez, Á. & Villa, T. G. Description: Agriculture, together with aquaculture, supplies most of the foodstuffs required by the world human population to survive. Hence, bacterial diseases affecting either agricultural crops, fish, or shellfish not only cause large economic losses to producers but can even create food shortages, resulting in malnutrition, or even famine, in vulnerable populations. Years of antibiotic use in the prevention and the treatment of these infections have greatly contributed to the emergence…

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Incidence, contributing factors, and control of bacterial pathogens in produce

**top choice** Author: Brackett, R.E. Description: The importance of bacterial pathogens in the transmission of foodborne illness has become apparent in recent years. Several large, well-publicized outbreaks of foodborne illness have been linked to cantaloupe, tomatoes, lettuce, alfalfa sprouts, and both apple and orange juices. In addition, numerous other smaller scale outbreaks linked to these and other commodities have also been reported. Although contributing factors have not been determined in all cases, several notable causes have been proposed. In particular, cross contamination with fecal matter of both domestic as well…

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