Interplay between iron homeostasis and virulence: Fur and RyhB as major regulators of bacterial pathogenicity

Author: Porcheron, Gaelle; Dozois, Charles M. Description: In bacteria-host interactions, competition for iron is critical for the outcome of the infection. As a result of its redox properties, this metal is essential for the growth and proliferation of most living organisms, including pathogenic bacteria. This metal is also potentially toxic, making the precise maintenance of iron homeostasis necessary for survival. Iron acquisition and storage control is mediated in most bacteria by the global ferric uptake regulator (Fur) and iron-responsive small regulatory non-coding RNAs (RyhB in the model organism Escherichia coli)….

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A Bacterial Pathogen Targets a Host Rab-Family GTPase Defense Pathway with a GAP

Author: Spano, Stefania; Gao, Xiang; Hannemann, Sebastian; Lara-Tejero, Mari­a; Galan, Jorge E. Description: Cell-autonomous defense mechanisms are potent strategies that protect individual cells against intracellular pathogens. The Rab-family GTPase Rab32 was previously shown to restrict the intracellular human pathogen Salmonella Typhi, but its potential broader role in antimicrobial defense remains unknown. We show that Rab32 represents a general cell-autonomous, antimicrobial defense that is counteracted by two Salmonella effectors. Mice lacking Rab-32 or its nucleotide exchange factor BLOC-3 are permissive to S. Typhi infection and exhibit increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium….

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Morphological plasticity as a bacterial survival strategy

Author: Justice, S.S.; Hunstad, D.A.; Cegelski, L.; Hultgren, S.J. Description: Bacteria have evolved complex systems to maintain consistent cell morphologies. Nevertheless, in certain circumstances, bacteria alter this highly regulated process to transform into filamentous organisms. Accumulating evidence attributes important biological roles to filamentation in stressful environments, including, but not limited to, sites of interaction between pathogenic bacteria and their hosts. Filamentation could represent an intended response to specific environmental cues that promote survival amidst the threats of consumption and killing. Subject headings: Adaptation, Physiological; Animals; Epithelial Cells/microbiology; Escherichia coli/pathogenicity/physiology; Gram-Negative…

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A comprehensive review of the antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential of essential oils and their chemical constituents against drug-resistant microbial pathogens

Author: Tariq, Saika; Wani, Saira; Rasool, Waseem; Shafi, Khushboo; Bhat, Muzzaffar Ahmad; Prabhakar, Anil; Shalla, Aabid Hussain; Rather, Manzoor A. Description: Essential oils are a complex mixture of odoriferous, volatile organic compounds. There are an extensive number of published articles which highlight the antimicrobial action of a variety of essential oils from various parts of the world. The main aim of this review article is to compile these antimicrobial essential oils and their constituents from reliable sources and put them together. The published literature indicates that essential oils possess a…

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Co-selection of multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens in metal and microplastic contaminated environments: An emerging health threat

Author: Imran, Md; Das, Kirti Ranjan; Naik, Milind Mohan Description: Misuse/over use of antibiotics increases the threats to human health since this is a main reason behind evolution of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. However, metals such as mercury, lead, zinc, copper and cadmium are accumulating to critical concentration in the environment and triggering co-selection of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The co-selection of metal driven antibiotic resistance in bacteria is achieved through co-resistance or cross resistance. Metal driven antibiotic resistant determinants evolved in bacteria and present on same mobile genetic elements…

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Listening in on bacteria: acyl-homoserine lactone signalling

Author: Fuqua, C.; Greenberg, E.P. Description: Bacterial cell-to-cell signalling has emerged as a new area in microbiology. Individual bacterial cells communicate with each other and co-ordinate group activities. Although a lot of detail is known about the mechanisms of a few well-characterized bacterial communication systems, other systems have been discovered only recently. Bacterial intercellular communication has become a target for the development of new anti-virulence drugs. Subject headings: 4-Butyrolactone/analogs & derivatives/biosynthesis/chemistry/metabolism; Animals; Bacteria/cytology/enzymology/metabolism/pathogenicity; Biofilms; Bioterrorism; Luminescent Measurements; Repressor Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism; Signal Transduction; Symbiosis; Trans-Activators/chemistry/genetics/metabolism Publication year: 2002 Journal or book title:…

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The Use of Bacteriophages in the Poultry Industry

Author: Żbikowska, K.; Michalczuk, M. & Dolka, B. Description: The emergence of multidrug-resistant infections and antibiotic failures have raised concerns over human and veterinary medicine worldwide. Poultry production has had to confront the problems of an alarming increase in bacterial resistance, including zoonotic pathogens. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis have been the most frequently reported human foodborne diseases linked to poultry. This situation has strongly stimulated a renewal of scientists’ interest in bacteriophages (phages) since the beginning of the 21st century. Bacteriophages are the…

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Rapid detection of Escherichia coli using bacteriophage-induced lysis and image analysis

Author: Yang, X.; Wisuthiphaet, N.; Young, G. M. & Nitin, N. Description: Rapid detection of bacterial pathogens is a critical unmet need for both food and environmental samples such as irrigation water. As a part of the Food safety Modernization Act (FSMA), The Produce Safety rule has established several requirements for testing for the presence of generic Escherichia coli in water, but the current method available for testing (EPA M1603) demands specified multiple colony verification and highly trained personnel to perform these tests. The purpose of the study was to…

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A Hundred Years of Bacteriophages: Can Phages Replace Antibiotics in Agriculture and Aquaculture?

Author: Sieiro, C.; Areal-Hermida, L.; Pichardo-Gallardo, Á.; Almuiña-González, R.; de Miguel, T.; Sánchez, S.; Sánchez-Pérez, Á. & Villa, T. G. Description: Agriculture, together with aquaculture, supplies most of the foodstuffs required by the world human population to survive. Hence, bacterial diseases affecting either agricultural crops, fish, or shellfish not only cause large economic losses to producers but can even create food shortages, resulting in malnutrition, or even famine, in vulnerable populations. Years of antibiotic use in the prevention and the treatment of these infections have greatly contributed to the emergence…

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Stress responses as determinants of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria

Author: Poole, K. Description: Bacteria encounter a myriad of potentially growth-compromising conditions in nature and in hosts of pathogenic bacteria. These ‘stresses’ typically elicit protective and/or adaptive responses that serve to enhance bacterial survivability. Because they impact upon many of the same cellular components and processes that are targeted by antimicrobials, adaptive stress responses can influence antimicrobial susceptibility. In targeting and interfering with key cellular processes, antimicrobials themselves are ‘stressors’ to which protective stress responses have also evolved. Cellular responses to nutrient limitation (nutrient stress), oxidative and nitrosative stress, cell…

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