Interplay between iron homeostasis and virulence: Fur and RyhB as major regulators of bacterial pathogenicity

Author: Porcheron, Gaelle; Dozois, Charles M. Description: In bacteria-host interactions, competition for iron is critical for the outcome of the infection. As a result of its redox properties, this metal is essential for the growth and proliferation of most living organisms, including pathogenic bacteria. This metal is also potentially toxic, making the precise maintenance of iron homeostasis necessary for survival. Iron acquisition and storage control is mediated in most bacteria by the global ferric uptake regulator (Fur) and iron-responsive small regulatory non-coding RNAs (RyhB in the model organism Escherichia coli)….

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A comprehensive review of the antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential of essential oils and their chemical constituents against drug-resistant microbial pathogens

Author: Tariq, Saika; Wani, Saira; Rasool, Waseem; Shafi, Khushboo; Bhat, Muzzaffar Ahmad; Prabhakar, Anil; Shalla, Aabid Hussain; Rather, Manzoor A. Description: Essential oils are a complex mixture of odoriferous, volatile organic compounds. There are an extensive number of published articles which highlight the antimicrobial action of a variety of essential oils from various parts of the world. The main aim of this review article is to compile these antimicrobial essential oils and their constituents from reliable sources and put them together. The published literature indicates that essential oils possess a…

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Co-selection of multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens in metal and microplastic contaminated environments: An emerging health threat

Author: Imran, Md; Das, Kirti Ranjan; Naik, Milind Mohan Description: Misuse/over use of antibiotics increases the threats to human health since this is a main reason behind evolution of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. However, metals such as mercury, lead, zinc, copper and cadmium are accumulating to critical concentration in the environment and triggering co-selection of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The co-selection of metal driven antibiotic resistance in bacteria is achieved through co-resistance or cross resistance. Metal driven antibiotic resistant determinants evolved in bacteria and present on same mobile genetic elements…

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Developing recombinant bacteria for control of mosquito larvae

Author: Federici, B.A.; Park, H.-W.; Bideshi, D.K.; Wirth, M.C.; Johnson, J.J.; Sakano, Y.; Tang, M. Description: Genetic engineering techniques have been used to significantly improve mosquito larvicides based on the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis (Bti) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs). These new larvicides hold excellent promise for providing better and more cost-effective control of nuisance mosquitoes and vectors of important diseases, including the anopheline vectors of malaria and culicine vectors responsible for filariasis and viral encephalitides. The toxicity of Bti and Bs is due primarily to endotoxin proteins produced…

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The Use of Bacteriophages in the Poultry Industry

Author: Żbikowska, K.; Michalczuk, M. & Dolka, B. Description: The emergence of multidrug-resistant infections and antibiotic failures have raised concerns over human and veterinary medicine worldwide. Poultry production has had to confront the problems of an alarming increase in bacterial resistance, including zoonotic pathogens. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis have been the most frequently reported human foodborne diseases linked to poultry. This situation has strongly stimulated a renewal of scientists’ interest in bacteriophages (phages) since the beginning of the 21st century. Bacteriophages are the…

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A Hundred Years of Bacteriophages: Can Phages Replace Antibiotics in Agriculture and Aquaculture?

Author: Sieiro, C.; Areal-Hermida, L.; Pichardo-Gallardo, Á.; Almuiña-González, R.; de Miguel, T.; Sánchez, S.; Sánchez-Pérez, Á. & Villa, T. G. Description: Agriculture, together with aquaculture, supplies most of the foodstuffs required by the world human population to survive. Hence, bacterial diseases affecting either agricultural crops, fish, or shellfish not only cause large economic losses to producers but can even create food shortages, resulting in malnutrition, or even famine, in vulnerable populations. Years of antibiotic use in the prevention and the treatment of these infections have greatly contributed to the emergence…

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Bacteriophage Therapy: Developments and Directions

Author: Nikolich, M. P. & Filippov, A. A. Description: In an era of proliferating multidrug resistant bacterial infections that are exhausting the capacity of existing chemical antibiotics and in which the development of new antibiotics is significantly rarer, Western medicine must seek additional therapeutic options that can be employed to treat these infections. Among the potential antibacterial solutions are bacteriophage therapeutics, which possess very different properties from broad spectrum antibiotics that are currently the standard of care, and which can be used in combination with them and often provide synergies….

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Bacterial antibiotic resistance studies using in vitro dynamic models: Population analysis vs. susceptibility testing as endpoints of mutant enrichment

Author: Firsov, A.A.; Strukova, E.N.; Portnoy, Y.A.; Shlykova, D.S.; Zinner, S.H. Description: Emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance is usually characterized either by population analysis or susceptibility testing. To compare these endpoints in their ability to demonstrate clear relationships with the ratio of 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) to the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), enrichment of ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of four clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied in an in vitro dynamic model that simulates mono-exponential pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin over a wide range of the AUC24/MIC ratios. Each organism…

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Microfluidic droplet application for bacterial surveillance in fresh-cut produce wash waters

Author: Harmon, J.B.; Gray, H.K.; Young, C.C.; Schwab, K.J. Description: Foodborne contamination and associated illness in the United States is responsible for an estimated 48 million cases per year. Increased food demand, global commerce of perishable foods, and the growing threat of antibiotic resistance are driving factors elevating concern for food safety. Foodborne illness is often associated with fresh-cut, ready-to-eat produce commodities due to the perishable nature of the product and relatively minimal processing from farm to the consumer. The research presented here optimizes and evaluates the utility of microfluidic…

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Stress responses as determinants of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria

Author: Poole, K. Description: Bacteria encounter a myriad of potentially growth-compromising conditions in nature and in hosts of pathogenic bacteria. These ‘stresses’ typically elicit protective and/or adaptive responses that serve to enhance bacterial survivability. Because they impact upon many of the same cellular components and processes that are targeted by antimicrobials, adaptive stress responses can influence antimicrobial susceptibility. In targeting and interfering with key cellular processes, antimicrobials themselves are ‘stressors’ to which protective stress responses have also evolved. Cellular responses to nutrient limitation (nutrient stress), oxidative and nitrosative stress, cell…

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