Bacteriophage therapy as an alternative treatment for human infections. A comprehensive review

Author: Kakasis, Athanasios; Panitsa, Gerasimia Description: Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses that infect bacteria. They were discovered around a century ago and have been used ever since for therapeutic purposes, particularly in former Soviet Union countries. Their use in Western countries was abandoned after the discovery and broad use of penicillin. The rising problem of antimicrobial resistance has revived interest in bacteriophage therapy. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of all aspects of natural phage therapy. Subject headings: Animals; Bacteria; Bacterial Infections; Bacteriophages; Humans; Phage…

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Bacteriophage resistance mechanisms

Author: Labrie, Simon J.; Samson, Julie E.; Moineau, Sylvain Description: Phages are now acknowledged as the most abundant microorganisms on the planet and are also possibly the most diversified. This diversity is mostly driven by their dynamic adaptation when facing selective pressure such as phage resistance mechanisms, which are widespread in bacterial hosts. When infecting bacterial cells, phages face a range of antiviral mechanisms, and they have evolved multiple tactics to avoid, circumvent or subvert these mechanisms in order to thrive in most environments. In this Review, we highlight the…

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Inhibition of Lactic Acid Bacteria by Herbs

Author: Zaika, L.L.; Kissinger, J.C.; Wasserman, A.E. Description: Increasing concentrations (0.5–8g/liter) of oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme progressively delayed growth and acid production by Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici in a liquid medium. After the bacteriostatic activity was overcome, all four herbs strongly stimulated acid production. The relative inhibitory effect of the herbs toward both microorganisms was oregano ≫ rosemary = sage gt; thyme. L. plantarum was more resistant than P. acidilactici to the toxic effect of the herbs. Organisms from cultures exhibiting delayed fermentation in the presence of sublethal concentrations of an herb, when subcultured into fresh…

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Combating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria with structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers

Author: Lam, S.J.; O’Brien-Simpson, N.M.; Pantarat, N.; Sulistio, A.; Wong, E.H.H.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Lenzo, J.C.; Holden, J.A.; Blencowe, A.; Reynolds, E.C.; Qiao, G.G. Description: With the recent emergence of reports on resistant Gram-negative ‘superbugs’, infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria have been named as one of the most urgent global health threats due to the lack of effective and biocompatible drugs. Here, we show that a class of antimicrobial agents, termed ‘structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers’ (SNAPPs) exhibit sub-muM activity against all Gram-negative bacteria tested, including ESKAPE and colistin-resistant…

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The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance

Author: Bai, X.; Ma, X.; Xu, F.; Li, J.; Zhang, H.; Xiao, X. Description: Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 mug/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance…

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Ribosome-targeting antibiotics and mechanisms of bacterial resistance

Author: Wilson, D.N. Description: The ribosome is one of the main antibiotic targets in the bacterial cell. Crystal structures of naturally produced antibiotics and their semi-synthetic derivatives bound to ribosomal particles have provided unparalleled insight into their mechanisms of action, and they are also facilitating the design of more effective antibiotics for targeting multidrug-resistant bacteria. In this Review, I discuss the recent structural insights into the mechanism of action of ribosome-targeting antibiotics and the molecular mechanisms of bacterial resistance, in addition to the approaches that are being pursued for the…

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Revenge of the phages: defeating bacterial defences

Author: Samson, J.E.; Magadan, A.H.; Sabri, M.; Moineau, S. Description: Bacteria and their viral predators (bacteriophages) are locked in a constant battle. In order to proliferate in phage-rich environments, bacteria have an impressive arsenal of defence mechanisms, and in response, phages have evolved counter-strategies to evade these antiviral systems. In this Review, we describe the various tactics that are used by phages to overcome bacterial resistance mechanisms, including adsorption inhibition, restriction-modification, CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) systems and abortive infection. Furthermore, we consider how these observations have…

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Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

Author: Sengeløv, G. Description: Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account for seasonal variations in numbers of soil bacteria, ratios of resistant bacteria divided by total count on nonselective plates were calculated. Soil samples were collected from four different farms and from a control soil on a fifth farm. The control soil was…

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Copper tolerance and antibiotic resistance in soil bacteria from olive tree agricultural fields routinely treated with copper compounds

Author: Glibota, Nicolas; Grande Burgos, Ma Jose; Galvez, Antonio; Ortega, Elena Description: BACKGROUND: Heavy metal pollution may act as persistent selective pressure that favors the spread of antimicrobial resistance in natural environments. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify metal-tolerant bacteria from soils in olive tree fields routinely treated with copper-derived compounds and to evaluate the tolerance of bacterial strains to other metals and their resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. RESULTS: Five hundred and ninety-five bacterial isolates from 45 olive tree agricultural fields were studied. Minimum inhibitory…

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Prioritized current unmet needs for antibacterial therapies

Author: Spellberg, B.; Shlaes, D. Description: As a result of declining new antibacterial approvals and rising antibiotic resistance, society clearly needs new treatments for bacterial infections. Specific areas of unmet need evolve over time owing to changes in resistance patterns and treatment strategies. Our goal here is to describe and prioritize the current areas of greatest unmet need for new antibacterial development based on an understanding of the most serious treatment challenges facing patients and their providers today. Subject headings: Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology/therapeutic use; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/epidemiology; Drug Design; Drug…

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