Biological insights from hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

Author: Jaswal, S.S. Description: Over the past two decades, hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HXMS) has achieved the status of a widespread and routine approach in the structural biology toolbox. The ability of hydrogen exchange to detect a range of protein dynamics coupled with the accessibility of mass spectrometry to mixtures and large complexes at low concentrations result in an unmatched tool for investigating proteins challenging to many other structural techniques. Recent advances in methodology and data analysis are helping HXMS deliver on its potential to uncover the connection between conformation,…

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Biological function of laminin-5 and pathogenic impact of its deficiency

Author: Schneider, H.; Muhle, C.; Pacho, F. Description: The basement membrane glycoprotein laminin-5 is a key component of the anchoring complex connecting keratinocytes to the underlying dermis. It is secreted by keratinocytes as a cross-shaped heterotrimer of alpha3, beta3 and gamma2 chains and serves as a ligand of various transmembrane receptors, thereby regulating keratinocyte adhesion, motility and proliferation. In intact skin, laminin-5 provides essential links to both the hemidesmosomal alpha6beta4 integrin and the collagen type VII molecules which form the anchoring fibrils inserting into the dermis. If the basement membrane…

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of amphotericin B derivatives

Author: Volmer, Astrid A.; Szpilman, Alex M.; Carreira, Erick M. Description: Covering: 1955 to 2009 The preparation and biological properties of various AmB analogs and conjugates that have been studied since the introduction of AmB into the clinic over 50 years ago are reviewed. Amphotericin B (AmB) analogs prepared by semi-synthetic modifications as well as those produced via genetic modification of the AmB polyketide synthase cluster are discussed, thereby highlighting the complementary approaches. In addition, the review includes the synthesis of AmB conjugated to biomolecules such as sterols and reactive…

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The biological basis of impulsiveness: the significance of timing and rhythm disorders

Author: Barratt, E.S. Description: High-impulsive subjects often do and say things on the spur of the moment and/or make up their minds quickly. The description of impulsivity as a personality trait involves a number of basic research questions including: 1. From a psychometric viewpoint, how inclusive or broad is impulsivity as a personality trait?2. How does impulsivity relate to other personality traits?3. Is there a pattern of biological correlates of impulsivity that is distinct from other personality traits?4. What is the relationship between cognitive and behavioral impulsivity? This paper addresses…

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Microbiological food safety assessment of high hydrostatic pressure processing: A review

Author: Rendueles, E.; Omer, M.K.; Alvseike, O.; Alonso-Calleja, C.; Capita, R.; Prieto, M. Description: High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing as a novel non-thermal method has shown great potential in producing microbiologically safer products while maintaining the natural characteristics of the food items. Scientific research of the process and its industrial applications has been widespread in the past two decades with many scientific publications describing its uses, advantages and limitations. The review describes the effect of HHP on foodborne pathogenic microorganisms, their structures and adaptive mechanisms, the intrinsic and extrinsic factors…

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Molecular and cellular biology of cholinesterases

Author: Massoulié, J.; Pezzementi, L.; Bon, S.; Krejci, E.; Vallette, F.-M. Description: Subject headings: Publication year: 1993 Journal or book title: Progress in Neurobiology Volume: 41 Issue: 1 Pages: 31-91 Find the full text : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/030100829390040Y Find more like this one (cited by): https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=11478088895294460489&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en Type: Journal Article Serial number: 726

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The biological activities of 26 gibberellins in nine plant bioassays

Author: Crozier, A.; Kuo, C.C.; Durley, R.C.; Pharis, R.P. Description: The activities of gibberellins A1–A15, A17–A27 and A8-glucoside are compared, using original and previously published data, in the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone α-amylase, Progress No. 9 dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), ‘Tan-ginbozu’ dwarf rice (Oryza sativa L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and the d-1, d-2, d-3, and d-5 maize (Zea mays L.) mutant bioassays. Gibberellins A3 and A7 show high activity in most bioassays. Gibberellins A9, A10, A23, and A24 are species specific in their…

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The neurobiology of emotionally influenced memory. Implications for understanding traumatic memory

Author: Cahill, L. Description: Substantial evidence from animal and human subject studies converges on the view that memory for emotionally arousing events is modulated by an endogenous memory-modulating system consisting, at minimum, of stress hormones and the amygdaloid complex. Within the normal range of emotions experienced, this system is viewed as an evolutionarily adaptive method of creating memory strength that is, in general, proportional to memory importance. In conditions of extreme emotional stress, the operation of this normally adaptive system may underly the formation of strong, “intrusive” memories characteristic of…

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Nervous and Endocrine System Dysfunction in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Overview and Consideration of Sex as a Biological Variable

Author: Seligowski, Antonia V.; Harnett, Nathaniel G.; Merker, Julia B.; Ressler, Kerry J. Description: Decades of research into the biological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests that chronic activation of the stress response leads to long-lasting changes in the structure and function of the nervous and endocrine systems. While the prevalence of PTSD is twice as high in females as males, little is known about how sex differences in neuroendocrine systems may contribute to PTSD. In response to the paucity of research on sex-related mechanisms, the National Institutes of…

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Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Chalcone Derivatives (Mini Review)

Author: Nasir Abbas Bukhari, S., Jasamai, M., & Jantan, I. Description: Chalcones are the principal precursors for the biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A three carbon a, ß-unsaturated carbonyl system constitutes chalcones. Chalcones are the condensation products of aromatic aldehyde with acetophenones in attendance of catalyst. They go through an assortment of chemical reactions and are found advantageous in synthesis of pyrazoline, isoxazole and a variety of heterocyclic compounds. In synthesizing a range of therapeutic compounds, chalcones impart a key role. They have shown therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of…

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