Survey of microbial quality of plant-based foods served in restaurants

Author: Sospedra, I.; Rubert, J.; Soriano, J.M.; Mañes, J. Description: This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality of plant-based foods obtained from foodservice establishments. The samples included cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables. According to the European Commission Regulation (No. 2073/2005 and No. 1441/2007) and Spanish microbiological criteria (No. 3484/2000), vegetables were the plant-based dishes where more samples exceed the adopted limits of mesophilic aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae. Furthermore, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were also found in several vegetable dishes. E. coli and Salmonella spp. were detected…

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Up and away: ontogenic transference as a pathway for aerial dispersal of microplastics

Author: Al-Jaibachi, Rana; Cuthbert, Ross N.; Callaghan, Amanda Description: Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous pollutants found in marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. With so many MPs in aquatic systems, it is inevitable that they will be ingested by aquatic organisms and be transferred up through the food chain. However, to date, no study has considered whether MPs can be transmitted by means of ontogenic transference, i.e. between life stages that use different habitats. Here, we determine whether fluorescent polystyrene beads could transfer between Culex mosquito life stages and, particularly, could move…

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Co-selection of multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens in metal and microplastic contaminated environments: An emerging health threat

Author: Imran, Md; Das, Kirti Ranjan; Naik, Milind Mohan Description: Misuse/over use of antibiotics increases the threats to human health since this is a main reason behind evolution of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. However, metals such as mercury, lead, zinc, copper and cadmium are accumulating to critical concentration in the environment and triggering co-selection of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The co-selection of metal driven antibiotic resistance in bacteria is achieved through co-resistance or cross resistance. Metal driven antibiotic resistant determinants evolved in bacteria and present on same mobile genetic elements…

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The Use of Bacteriophages in the Poultry Industry

Author: Żbikowska, K.; Michalczuk, M. & Dolka, B. Description: The emergence of multidrug-resistant infections and antibiotic failures have raised concerns over human and veterinary medicine worldwide. Poultry production has had to confront the problems of an alarming increase in bacterial resistance, including zoonotic pathogens. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis have been the most frequently reported human foodborne diseases linked to poultry. This situation has strongly stimulated a renewal of scientists’ interest in bacteriophages (phages) since the beginning of the 21st century. Bacteriophages are the…

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Hydrogen production by nitrogenase as a potential crop rotation benefit

Author: Golding, A.-L.; Dong, Z. Description: Both climate change and the adverse effects of chemical use on human and environmental health are recognized as serious issues of global concern. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the agricultural sector where release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane continues to be problematic and where use of nitrogen fertilizer is responsible for negative impacts on both human populations and ecosystems. The manipulation of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) could help alleviate part of the difficulty by decreasing the…

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Antibacterial properties of nine pure metals: a laboratory study using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

Author: Yasuyuki, M.; Kunihiro, K.; Kurissery, S.; Kanavillil, N.; Sato, Y.; Kikuchi, Y. Description: Bacterial attachment and growth on material surfaces are considered to be the primary steps leading to the formation of biofilm. Biofilms in hospital and food processing settings can result in bacterial infection and food contamination, respectively. Prevention of bacterial attachment, therefore, is considered to be the best strategy for abating these menaces and therefore the development of antibacterial metals becomes important. In this study, nine pure metals, viz. titanium, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, zirconium, molybdenum, tin,…

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Microfluidic droplet application for bacterial surveillance in fresh-cut produce wash waters

Author: Harmon, J.B.; Gray, H.K.; Young, C.C.; Schwab, K.J. Description: Foodborne contamination and associated illness in the United States is responsible for an estimated 48 million cases per year. Increased food demand, global commerce of perishable foods, and the growing threat of antibiotic resistance are driving factors elevating concern for food safety. Foodborne illness is often associated with fresh-cut, ready-to-eat produce commodities due to the perishable nature of the product and relatively minimal processing from farm to the consumer. The research presented here optimizes and evaluates the utility of microfluidic…

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Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to UV-C light and combined UV-heat treatments at mild temperatures

Author: Gayan, E.; Garcia-Gonzalo, D.; Alvarez, I.; Condon, S. Description: In this investigation, the resistance of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to short-wave ultraviolet light (UV-C) and to combined UV C-heat (UV-H) treatments in buffers and in liquid foods with different physicochemical characteristics was studied. Microbial resistance to UV-C varied slightly among the S. aureus strains tested. The UV-C resistance of S. aureus increased in the entry of stationary growth phase, which in part was due to the expression of the alternative sigma factor sigma(B). The UV-C resistance of S. aureus was…

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Competitive interactions inside mixed-culture biofilms of Salmonella Typhimurium and cultivable indigenous microorganisms on lettuce enhance microbial resistance of their sessile cells to ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation

Author: Jahid, I.K.; Han, N.R.; Srey, S.; Ha, S.-D. Description: Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) is one of the leading causes of foodborne diseases in fresh produce, such as lettuce. Despite this, the role of the possible interactions between lettuce indigenous microorganisms and ST on their ability to form biofilm on lettuce and subsequently on the sensitivity of their sessile cells to ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation, remains relatively unexplored. Here, the interaction of a mixed-culture of ST and cultivable indigenous microorganisms (CIMs) was examined, as well as the efficacy of UV-C. Initially,…

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Climate change impacts on mycotoxin risks in US maize

Author: Wu, F.; Bhatnagar, D.; Bui-Klimke, T.; Carbone, I.; Hellmich, R.; Munkvold, G.; Paul, P.; Payne, G.; Takle, E. Description: To ensure future food security, it is crucial to understand how potential climate change scenarios will affect agriculture. One key area of interest is how climatic factors, both in the near- and the long-term future, could affect fungal infection of crops and mycotoxin production by these fungi. The objective of this paper is to review the potential impact of climate change on three important mycotoxins that contaminate maize in the…

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