Shigella as a foodborne pathogen and current methods for detection in food

Author: Warren, B.R.; Parish, M.E.; Schneider, K.R. Description: Shigella, the causative agent of shigellosis or “bacillary dysentery,” has been increasingly involved in foodborne outbreaks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Emerging Infections Program, Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), Shigella was the third most reported foodborne bacterial pathogen in 2002. Foods are most commonly contaminated with Shigella by an infected food handler who practices poor personal hygiene. Shigella is acid resistant, salt tolerant, and can survive at infective levels in many types of foods such as fruits…

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Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

Author: Carvalho, F.P. Description: Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not…

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Neatness counts. How plating affects liking for the taste of food

Author: Zellner, D.A.; Siemers, E.; Teran, V.; Conroy, R.; Lankford, M.; Agrafiotis, A.; Ambrose, L.; Locher, P. Description: Two studies investigated the effect that the arrangement of food on a plate has on liking for the flavor of the food. Food presented in a neatly arranged presentation is liked more than the same food presented in a messy manner. A third study found that subjects expected to like the food in the neat presentations more than in the messy ones and would be willing to pay more for them. They…

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Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain

Author: Miraglia, M.; Berdal, K.G.; Brera, C.; Corbisier, P.; Holst-Jensen, A.; Kok, E.J.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Schimmel, H.; Rentsch, J.; van Rie, J.P.P.F.; Zagon, J. Description: Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the…

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Microfluidic droplet application for bacterial surveillance in fresh-cut produce wash waters

Author: Harmon, J.B.; Gray, H.K.; Young, C.C.; Schwab, K.J. Description: Foodborne contamination and associated illness in the United States is responsible for an estimated 48 million cases per year. Increased food demand, global commerce of perishable foods, and the growing threat of antibiotic resistance are driving factors elevating concern for food safety. Foodborne illness is often associated with fresh-cut, ready-to-eat produce commodities due to the perishable nature of the product and relatively minimal processing from farm to the consumer. The research presented here optimizes and evaluates the utility of microfluidic…

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The Use of Bacteriophages in the Poultry Industry

Author: Żbikowska, K.; Michalczuk, M. & Dolka, B. Description: The emergence of multidrug-resistant infections and antibiotic failures have raised concerns over human and veterinary medicine worldwide. Poultry production has had to confront the problems of an alarming increase in bacterial resistance, including zoonotic pathogens. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis have been the most frequently reported human foodborne diseases linked to poultry. This situation has strongly stimulated a renewal of scientists’ interest in bacteriophages (phages) since the beginning of the 21st century. Bacteriophages are the…

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Survey of microbial quality of plant-based foods served in restaurants

Author: Sospedra, I.; Rubert, J.; Soriano, J.M.; Mañes, J. Description: This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality of plant-based foods obtained from foodservice establishments. The samples included cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables. According to the European Commission Regulation (No. 2073/2005 and No. 1441/2007) and Spanish microbiological criteria (No. 3484/2000), vegetables were the plant-based dishes where more samples exceed the adopted limits of mesophilic aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae. Furthermore, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were also found in several vegetable dishes. E. coli and Salmonella spp. were detected…

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Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to UV-C light and combined UV-heat treatments at mild temperatures

Author: Gayan, E.; Garcia-Gonzalo, D.; Alvarez, I.; Condon, S. Description: In this investigation, the resistance of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to short-wave ultraviolet light (UV-C) and to combined UV C-heat (UV-H) treatments in buffers and in liquid foods with different physicochemical characteristics was studied. Microbial resistance to UV-C varied slightly among the S. aureus strains tested. The UV-C resistance of S. aureus increased in the entry of stationary growth phase, which in part was due to the expression of the alternative sigma factor sigma(B). The UV-C resistance of S. aureus was…

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Incidence, contributing factors, and control of bacterial pathogens in produce

**top choice** Author: Brackett, R.E. Description: The importance of bacterial pathogens in the transmission of foodborne illness has become apparent in recent years. Several large, well-publicized outbreaks of foodborne illness have been linked to cantaloupe, tomatoes, lettuce, alfalfa sprouts, and both apple and orange juices. In addition, numerous other smaller scale outbreaks linked to these and other commodities have also been reported. Although contributing factors have not been determined in all cases, several notable causes have been proposed. In particular, cross contamination with fecal matter of both domestic as well…

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Some major mycotoxins and their mycotoxicoses–an overview

Author: Richard, J.L. Description: Mycotoxins likely have existed for as long as crops have been grown but recognition of the true chemical nature of such entities of fungal metabolism was not known until recent times. Conjecturally, there is historical evidence of their presence back as far as the time reported in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Evidence of their periodic, historical occurrence exists until the recognition of aflatoxins in the early 1960s. At that time, mycotoxins were considered as a storage phenomenon whereby grains becoming moldy during storage allowed for the…

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