Memory and Consciousness

Author: Tulving, E. Description: Describes laboratory and clinical attempts to relate different memory systems (procedural, semantic, and episodic) to corresponding varieties of consciousness (anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic). The case of a young adult male amnesic patient is described. The S suffered a closed head injury that left him without autonoetic consciousness. This deficit is manifested in his amnesia for personal events and his impaired awareness of subjective time. Two simple experiments investigated recall and recognition by a total of 89 normal undergraduates to further examine autonoetic consciousness as the necessary…

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Memory function in very early Alzheimer’s disease

Author: Petersen, R.C.; Smith, G.E.; Ivnik, R.J.; Kokmen, E.; Tangalos, E.G. Description: The detection of very early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can be important for both theoretical and practical reasons. Typically, a memory impairment is the first sign of incipient disease, but the early clinical diagnosis can be challenging. We investigated several aspects of memory function in AD and normal aging to determine which indices of performance were most sensitive at detecting early impairments. We evaluated 106 pairs of patients with probable AD and matched controls from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer’s…

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Memory in Autism: Review and Synthesis

Author: Shalom, D. Description: Much research about memory in autism concerns the hypothesis that autism is similar to adult-onset amnesia. Initial support for the hypothesis came from post-mortem studies of individuals with autism showing abnormalities in the hippocampus and related brain structures, as well as behavioral studies finding contrasts between intact cued recall and impaired free recall and recognition in autism. The hypothesis was later brought into question by the finding of intact performance in individuals with autism on explicit memory tasks typically impaired in adult-onset amnesia. The present paper…

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Memory and fitness optimization of bacteria under fluctuating environments

Author: Lambert, G.; Kussell, E. Description: Bacteria prudently regulate their metabolic phenotypes by sensing the availability of specific nutrients, expressing the required genes for their metabolism, and repressing them after specific metabolites are depleted. It is unclear, however, how genetic networks maintain and transmit phenotypic states between generations under rapidly fluctuating environments. By subjecting bacteria to fluctuating carbon sources (glucose and lactose) using microfluidics, we discover two types of non-genetic memory in Escherichia coli and analyze their benefits. First, phenotypic memory conferred by transmission of stable intracellular lac proteins dramatically…

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Memory functioning in children and adolescents with autism

Author: Southwick, J.S.; Bigler, E.D.; Froehlich, A.; Dubray, M.B.; Alexander, A.L.; Lange, N.; Lainhart, J.E. Description: OBJECTIVE: Memory functioning in children and adolescents ages 5-19 with autism (n = 50) and typically developing controls (n = 36) was assessed using a clinical assessment battery, the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL). METHOD: Participant groups were statistically comparable in age, nonverbal IQ, handedness, and head circumference, and were administered the TOMAL. RESULTS: Test performance on the TOMAL demonstrated broad differences in memory functioning in the autism group, across multiple task formats,…

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Memory and the self in autism: A review and theoretical framework

Author: Lind, S.E. Description: This article reviews research on (a) autobiographical episodic and semantic memory, (b) the self-reference effect, (c) memory for the actions of self versus other (the self-enactment effect), and (d) non-autobiographical episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and provides a theoretical framework to account for the bidirectional relationship between memory and the self in ASD. It is argued that individuals with ASD have diminished psychological self-knowledge (as a consequence of diagnostic social and communication impairments), alongside intact physical self-knowledge, resulting in an under-elaborated self-concept. Consequently, individuals…

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Social isolation rearing-induced impairment of the hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with deficits in spatial memory and emotion-related behaviors in juvenile mice

Author: Ibi, Daisuke; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Koike, Hiroyuki; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Tsuritani, Katsuki; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Taku; Yoneda, Yukio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi Description: Experiences during brain development may influence the pathogenesis of developmental disorders. Thus, social isolation (SI) rearing after weaning is a useful animal model for studying the pathological mechanisms of such psychiatric diseases. In this study, we examined the effect of SI on neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) relating to memory and emotion-related behaviors. When newly divided cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) before SI,…

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Acetylcholine Mediates the Estrogen-Induced Increase in NMDA Receptor Binding in CA1 of the Hippocampus and the Associated Improvement in Working Memory

Author: Daniel, J.M.; Dohanich, G.P. Description: Elevated levels of circulating estrogen in female rats result in increased spine and synapse density and parallel increases in NMDA receptor binding in area CA1 of the hippocampus. Estrogen also influences cholinergic neurochemistry in the basal forebrain and hippocampus. The objectives of the present study were to determine the role of acetylcholine in the estrogen-induced increase in NMDA receptor binding in CA1 of the hippocampus and to investigate the relationship between increased NMDA receptor binding in CA1 and performance on a task of working…

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Recent developments in short-term memory

Author: Murdock, B.B.J. Description: This paper reviews some recent developments in the area of short-term memory. The methodological innovations include the distractor technique and the probe technique. The main empirical phenomena discussed are recency effects, input and output interference, the length-difficulty relationship, inter-item interference, proactive interference effects, the distribution of practice interaction, associative symmetry, modality effect, acoustic confusions, and transpositions. A “modal model” is presented which attempts to synthesize some recent theoretical conceptions; the components include sensory, short-term and long-term stores with three different forgetting mechanisms (decay, displacement and interference,…

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A sensitizing regimen of amphetamine that disrupts attentional set-shifting does not disrupt working or long-term memory

Author: Featherstone, R.E.; Rizos, Z.; Kapur, S.; Fletcher, P.J. Description: Exposure to an intermittent, escalating dose of amphetamine induces a sensitized state that, both behaviourally and neurochemically, mirrors several features linked to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Increasingly it is being realized that cognitive deficits are a core component of schizophrenia; therefore we sought to assess the effects of inducing an amphetamine-sensitized state on memory (working and long-term) and cognitive flexibility, two cognitive domains impaired in schizophrenia. Rats were exposed to a sensitizing regimen of amphetamine (1-5 mg/kg; three times…

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