Plant proteome changes under abiotic stress–contribution of proteomics studies to understanding plant stress response

Author: Kosova, K.; Vitamvas, P.; Prasil, I.T.; Renaut, J. Description: Plant acclimation to stress is associated with profound changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. In this review, proteomics studies dealing with plant response to a broad range of abiotic stress factors–cold, heat, drought, waterlogging, salinity, ozone treatment, hypoxia and anoxia, herbicide treatments, inadequate or excessive light conditions, disbalances in mineral nutrition, enhanced concentrations of heavy metals,…

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Effects of intra-prelimbic prefrontal cortex injection of cannabidiol on anxiety-like behavior: involvement of 5HT1A receptors and previous stressful experience

Author: Fogaca, M. V.; Reis, F. M. C. V.; Campos, A. C.; Guimaraes, F. S. Description: The prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL) is an important encephalic structure involved in the expression of emotional states. In a previous study, intra-PL injection of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant, reduced the expression of fear conditioning response. Although its mechanism remains unclear, CBD can facilitate 5HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission when injected into several brain structures. This study was aimed at verifying if intra-PL CBD could also induce anxiolytic-like…

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Seed glucosinolate, oil and protein contents of field-grown rape (Brassica napus L.) affected by soil drying and evaporative demand

Author: Jensen, C. R.; Mogensen, V. O.; Mortensen, G.; Fieldsend, J. K.; Milford, G. F. J.; Andersen, M. N.; Thage, J. H. Description: The effect of soil drying on seed yield, oil, protein, and glucosinolate contents was studied in rape (Brassica napus. L) grown in sandy and loamy soils in lysimeters in the field. By controlling irrigation, the plants were exposed to early drought (ED) during the vegetative and the flowering stage or late drought (LD) during the pod filling stage. Under low evaporative demands (2-4 mm day-1) in 1991,…

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Chronic estrogen-induced alterations in adrenocorticotropin and corticosterone secretion, and glucocorticoid receptor-mediated functions in female rats

Author: Burgess, L. H.; Handa, R. J. Description: The effect of estrogen (E) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was investigated in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX), and a Silastic capsule (0.5 cm) containing 17 beta-estradiol was sc implanted. Control animals received a blank capsule. Animals were killed 21 days later. In E-treated rats, we found significantly higher corticosterone (CORT) peak levels 20 min after a 5-sec footshock (1.0 mamp) or exposure to ether vapors (P less than 0.05) compared to those in OVX controls. In addition, the recovery…

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Distinct associations between energy balance and the sleep characteristics slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep

Author: Rutters, F.; Gonnissen, H. K.; Hursel, R.; Lemmens, S. G.; Martens, E. A.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Description: CONTEXT: Epidemiologically, an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sleep duration is observed. Intra-individual variance in the amount of slow wave sleep (SWS) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been related to variance of metabolic and endocrine parameters, which are risk factors for the disturbance of energy balance (EB). OBJECTIVE: To investigate inter-individual relationships between EB (EB= energy intake-energy expenditure|, MJ/24 h), SWS or REM sleep, and relevant parameters…

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Interactive effects of nitrate and long-term waterlogging on growth, water relations, and gaseous exchange properties of maize (Zea mays L.)

Author: Ashraf, M.; Habib-ur-Rehman, Description: The interactive effect of additional amount of NO3-N and long-term waterlogging on maize was studied in glasshouse conditions. Forty-two-day-old plants were subjected to continuous flooding for 21 days at three different NO3-N regimes (196, 294 and 392 mg N kg-1 soil). Shoot fresh mass and leaf area of waterlogged plants reduced significantly at two higher NO3 regimes. Leaf water potential was generally decreased, whereas osmotic potential increased in all waterlogged plants but much reduction in leaf water potential was found at the highest external NO3…

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Response of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes to excess soil moisture stress: morpho-physiological effects and basis of tolerance

Author: Zaidi, P.H.; Rafique, S.; Singh, N.N. Description: Experiments were conducted during kharif (summer rainy) season in 1999 and 2000 under controlled environment (glass-house) followed by field condition to assess the effects of excess soil moisture (ESM) stress on maize (Zea mays L.), extent of genetic variability and to assess the morpho-physiological/metabolic basis of stress tolerance. Six genotypes, having different genetic background and known for their reactions to waterlogging stress, have been used in this study. Seedlings were raised in disposable plastic cups (250 cm3) under completely saturated soil conditions,…

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Comparative salt tolerance analysis between Arabidopsis thaliana and Thellungiella halophila, with special emphasis on K(+)/Na(+) selectivity and proline accumulation

Author: Ghars, M.A.; Parre, E.; Debez, A.; Bordenave, M.; Richard, L.; Leport, L.; Bouchereau, A.; Savoure, A.; Abdelly, C. Description: The eco-physiology of salt tolerance, with an emphasis on K(+) nutrition and proline accumulation, was investigated in the halophyte Thellungiella halophila and in both wild type and eskimo-1 mutant of the glycophyte Arabidopsis thaliana, which differ in their proline accumulation capacity. Plants cultivated in inert sand were challenged for 3 weeks with up to 500mM NaCl. Low salinity significantly decreased A. thaliana growth, whereas growth restriction was significant only at…

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Genetic and epigenetic control of plant heat responses

Author: Liu, Junzhong; Feng, Lili; Li, Jianming; He, Zuhua Description: Plants have evolved sophisticated genetic and epigenetic regulatory systems to respond quickly to unfavorable environmental conditions such as heat, cold, drought, and pathogen infections. In particular, heat greatly affects plant growth and development, immunity and circadian rhythm, and poses a serious threat to the global food supply. According to temperatures exposing, heat can be usually classified as warm ambient temperature (about 22-27°C), high temperature (27-30°C) and extremely high temperature (37-42°C, also known as heat stress) for the model plant Arabidopsis…

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Beyond transcription: RNA-binding proteins as emerging regulators of plant response to environmental constraints

Author: Ambrosone, Alfredo; Costa, Antonello; Leone, Antonella; Grillo, Stefania Description: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) govern many aspects of RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA processing, transport, stability/decay and translation. Although relatively few plant RNA-binding proteins have been characterized genetically and biochemically, more than 200 RBP genes have been predicted in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, suggesting that they might serve specific plant functions. Besides their role in normal cellular functions, RBPs are emerging also as an interesting class of proteins involved in a wide range of post-transcriptional regulatory events that are important in providing…

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