Plant proteome changes under abiotic stress–contribution of proteomics studies to understanding plant stress response

Author: Kosova, K.; Vitamvas, P.; Prasil, I.T.; Renaut, J. Description: Plant acclimation to stress is associated with profound changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. In this review, proteomics studies dealing with plant response to a broad range of abiotic stress factors–cold, heat, drought, waterlogging, salinity, ozone treatment, hypoxia and anoxia, herbicide treatments, inadequate or excessive light conditions, disbalances in mineral nutrition, enhanced concentrations of heavy metals,…

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Virus infection improves drought tolerance

Author: Xu, Ping; Chen, Fang; Mannas, Jonathan P.; Feldman, Tracy; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Roossinck, Marilyn J. Description: Viruses are obligate intracellular symbionts. Plant viruses are often discovered and studied as pathogenic parasites that cause diseases in agricultural plants. However, here it is shown that viruses can extend survival of their hosts under conditions of abiotic stress that could benefit hosts if they subsequently recover and reproduce. Various plant species were inoculated with four different RNA viruses, Brome mosaic virus (BMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus and Tobacco rattle…

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Positive interactions among alpine plants increase with stress

Author: Callaway, R.M.; Brooker, R.W.; Choler, P.; Kikvidze, Z.; Lortie, C.J.; Michalet, R.; Paolini, L.; Pugnaire, F.I.; Newingham, B.; Aschehoug, E.T.; Armas, C.; Kikodze, D.; Cook, B.J. Description: Plants can have positive effects on each other. For example, the accumulation of nutrients, provision of shade, amelioration of disturbance, or protection from herbivores by some species can enhance the performance of neighbouring species. Thus the notion that the distributions and abundances of plant species are independent of other species may be inadequate as a theoretical underpinning for understanding species coexistence and…

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Beyond transcription: RNA-binding proteins as emerging regulators of plant response to environmental constraints

Author: Ambrosone, A.; Costa, A.; Leone, A.; Grillo, S. Description: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) govern many aspects of RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA processing, transport, stability/decay and translation. Although relatively few plant RNA-binding proteins have been characterized genetically and biochemically, more than 200 RBP genes have been predicted in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, suggesting that they might serve specific plant functions. Besides their role in normal cellular functions, RBPs are emerging also as an interesting class of proteins involved in a wide range of post-transcriptional regulatory events that are important in providing…

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The stress concept in plants: an introduction

Author: Lichtenthaler, H.K. Description: The current concept of stress in plants has been well developed over the past 60 years. Any unfavorable condition or substance that affects or blocks a plant’s metabolism, growth, or development is regarded as stress. Vegetation stress can be induced by various natural and anthropogenic stress factors. One has to differentiate between short-term and long-term stress effects as well as between low-stress events that can be partially compensated for by acclimation, adaptation, and repair mechanisms, on the one hand, and strong stress or chronic stress events…

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Genetic and epigenetic control of plant heat responses

Author: Liu, J.; Feng, L.; Li, J.; He, Z. Description: Plants have evolved sophisticated genetic and epigenetic regulatory systems to respond quickly to unfavorable environmental conditions such as heat, cold, drought, and pathogen infections. In particular, heat greatly affects plant growth and development, immunity and circadian rhythm, and poses a serious threat to the global food supply. According to temperatures exposing, heat can be usually classified as warm ambient temperature (about 22-27 degrees C), high temperature (27-30 degrees C) and extremely high temperature (37-42 degrees C, also known as heat…

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Overexpression of GASA5 increases the sensitivity of Arabidopsis to heat stress

Author: Zhang, S.; Wang, X. Description: Basal thermotolerance is very important for plant growth and development when plants are subjected to heat stress. However, little is known about the functional mechanism of gibberellins (GAs) in the basal thermotolerance of plants. In the present work, we provide molecular evidence that a member of the gene family encoding the GA-stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA) peptides, namely GASA5, is involved in the regulation of seedling thermotolerance. The GASA5-overexpressing plants displayed a weak thermotolerance, with a faster cotyledon-yellowing rate, lower seedling-survival rate, and slower hypocotyl elongation,…

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Role of plant RNA-binding proteins in development, stress response and genome organization

Author: Lorkovic, Z.J. Description: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in eukaryotes have crucial roles in all aspects of post-transcriptional gene regulation. They are important governors of diverse developmental processes by modulating expression of specific transcripts. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome encodes for more than 200 different RBPs, most of which are plant specific and are therefore likely to perform plant-specific functions. Indeed, recent identification and analysis of plant RBPs clearly showed that, in addition to the important role in diverse developmental processes, they are also involved in adaptation of plants to various…

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Physiological and biochemical changes of CBF3 transgenic oat in response to salinity stress

Author: Oraby, H.; Ahmad, R. Description: Salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting oat productivity. Several physiological and biochemical traits have been found to be related to yield maintenance under salinity. The impact of introducing the Arabidopsis CBF3 gene controlled by the rd29A stress-inducible promoter in T(2) transgenic oat on salinity tolerance and associated physiological changes were studied. Compared with the non-transgenic control, transgenic T(2) plants exhibited greater growth and showed significant maintenance of leaf area, relative water content, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic and transpiration rates as well as increased levels…

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Complexity of the heat stress response in plants

Author: Kotak, S.; Larkindale, J.; Lee, U.; von Koskull-Doring, P.; Vierling, E.; Scharf, K.-D. Description: Plants have evolved a variety of responses to elevated temperatures that minimize damage and ensure protection of cellular homeostasis. New information about the structure and function of heat stress proteins and molecular chaperones has become available. At the same time, transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis has revealed the involvement of factors other than classical heat stress responsive genes in thermotolerance. Recent reports suggest that both plant hormones and reactive oxygen species also contribute to heat stress…

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