Plant proteome changes under abiotic stress–contribution of proteomics studies to understanding plant stress response

Author: Kosova, K.; Vitamvas, P.; Prasil, I.T.; Renaut, J. Description: Plant acclimation to stress is associated with profound changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. In this review, proteomics studies dealing with plant response to a broad range of abiotic stress factors–cold, heat, drought, waterlogging, salinity, ozone treatment, hypoxia and anoxia, herbicide treatments, inadequate or excessive light conditions, disbalances in mineral nutrition, enhanced concentrations of heavy metals,…

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Heat-shock proteins induce heavy-metal tolerance in higher plants

Author: Neumann, D.; Lichtenberger, O.; Gnther, D.; Tschiersch, K.; Nover, L. Description: Cell cultures of Lycopersicon peruvianum L. stressed with CdSO4 (10−3M) show typical changes in the ultrastructure, starting with the plasmalemma and later on extending to the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondrial envelope. Part of the membrane material is extruded, with the formation of osmiophilic droplets which increase in size and number during the stress period. After 4 h, about 20‰ of the cells are dead. A short heat stress preceeding the heavy-metal stress induces a tolerance effect by…

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Effect of atmospheric CO2 on plant defense against leaf and root pathogens of Arabidopsis

Author: Zhou, Yeling; Van Leeuwen, Sanne K.; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; Van Wees, Saskia C. M. Description: Climate change and the associated increase in atmospheric CO2 levels may affect the severity of plant diseases and threaten future crop yields. Here, we compared responses of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to leaf and root pathogens with hemi-biotrophic or necrotrophic infection strategies under pre-industrial, current, and future atmospheric CO2 conditions. Defenses against biotrophs are generally regulated by salicylic acid (SA) signaling, whereas jasmonic acid (JA) signaling controls…

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Species distribution and community organization in a Nebraska Sandhills mixed prairie as influenced by plant/soil-water relationships

Author: Barnes, Paul W.; Harrison, A. Tyrone Description: Plant and soil water relationships in a typical nebraska Sandhills prairie were examined to 1) explain the observed distribution patterns of several dominant grasses along a topographic gradient, and 2) show how spatial and temporal variations in soil moisture are critical to community organization on a sandy substrate. An experimental transect encompassing the major community and soil types along a steep, west-facing vegetated dune was established. Maximum available water was shown to be significantly higher in the fine textured surface soils of…

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Relationships between growth, photosynthesis and competitive interactions for a C3 and C4 plant

Author: Pearcy, R.W.; Tumosa, N.; Williams, K. Description: The relationships of photosynthetic characteristics to the competitive interactions of a C3 plant, Chenopodium album, and a C4 plant, Amaranthis retroflexus, were investigated in different temperature and water supply regimes. Both species had similar photosynthetic rates at 25 degrees C, but at higher temperatures, Amaranthus had substantially greater rates than Chenopodium. Conversely, at lower temperatures, Chenopodium had an advantage. The competitive abilities in mixtures exhibited a close parallel to the photosynthetic performances with Amaranthus having an advantage at high temperatures and Chenopodium…

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Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants

Author: Root, T.L.; Price, J.T.; Hall, K.R.; Schneider, S.H.; Rosenzweig, C.; Pounds, J.A. Description: Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6 degrees C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on species and global warming from 143 studies for our meta-analyses. These analyses reveal a consistent temperature-related shift, or ‘fingerprint’,…

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Soil-plant water relations, root distribution and biomass partitioning in Lupinus albus L. under drought conditions

Author: Rodrigues, M.L.; Pacheco, C.M.A.; Chaves, M.M. Description: Lupinus albus L. from different climatic origins responded to a 15 d period of water shortage during flowering by losing 50% of the total leaf canopy and gaining 55% in stem dry weight. Water deficits also led to a significant increase in the fine root length density and a slight increase in the fine root dry weight. The latter increase was especially pronounced in the deeper soil layers. Some marginal differences among genotypes were observed in the responses. Stomatal closure by midday…

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The stress concept in plants: an introduction

Author: Lichtenthaler, H.K. Description: The current concept of stress in plants has been well developed over the past 60 years. Any unfavorable condition or substance that affects or blocks a plant’s metabolism, growth, or development is regarded as stress. Vegetation stress can be induced by various natural and anthropogenic stress factors. One has to differentiate between short-term and long-term stress effects as well as between low-stress events that can be partially compensated for by acclimation, adaptation, and repair mechanisms, on the one hand, and strong stress or chronic stress events…

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Positive interactions among alpine plants increase with stress

Author: Callaway, R.M.; Brooker, R.W.; Choler, P.; Kikvidze, Z.; Lortie, C.J.; Michalet, R.; Paolini, L.; Pugnaire, F.I.; Newingham, B.; Aschehoug, E.T.; Armas, C.; Kikodze, D.; Cook, B.J. Description: Plants can have positive effects on each other. For example, the accumulation of nutrients, provision of shade, amelioration of disturbance, or protection from herbivores by some species can enhance the performance of neighbouring species. Thus the notion that the distributions and abundances of plant species are independent of other species may be inadequate as a theoretical underpinning for understanding species coexistence and…

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Role of plant RNA-binding proteins in development, stress response and genome organization

Author: Lorkovic, Z.J. Description: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in eukaryotes have crucial roles in all aspects of post-transcriptional gene regulation. They are important governors of diverse developmental processes by modulating expression of specific transcripts. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome encodes for more than 200 different RBPs, most of which are plant specific and are therefore likely to perform plant-specific functions. Indeed, recent identification and analysis of plant RBPs clearly showed that, in addition to the important role in diverse developmental processes, they are also involved in adaptation of plants to various…

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