Sleep and immune function

Author: Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan Description: Sleep and the circadian system exert a strong regulatory influence on immune functions. Investigations of the normal sleep-wake cycle showed that immune parameters like numbers of undifferentiated na├»ve T cells and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines exhibit peaks during early nocturnal sleep whereas circulating numbers of immune cells with immediate effector functions, like cytotoxic natural killer cells, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokine activity peak during daytime wakefulness. Although it is difficult to entirely dissect the influence of sleep from that of the…

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Sleep in adolescents: the perfect storm

Author: Carskadon, Mary A. Description: A reduction in sleep amount from late childhood through the second decade has long been known; however, the weight of current evidence holds that sleep need does not decline across this span. This article will describe how the loss of sleep through adolescence is not driven by lower need for sleep but arises from a convergence of biologic, psychological, and socio-cultural influences. Subject headings: Adolescent; Adolescent Development; Affect; Circadian Rhythm; Humans; Sleep Publication year: 2011 Journal or book title: Pediatric Clinics of North America Volume:…

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Sleep and adolescent suicidal behavior

Author: Liu, Xianchen Description: STUDY OBJECTIVES: Suicide risk begins to increase during adolescence. Adolescents do not get enough sleep and are also at risk for many sleep disturbances. This study examined the association between sleep patterns and sleep problems and adolescent suicidal behavior. DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire survey of adolescents attending school was conducted in one prefecture of Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,362 adolescents attending school (mean age 14.6 years, 60% males) participated in the survey. MEASUREMENTS: Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire that…

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Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills

Author: Killgore, W.D.S.; Kahn-Greene, E.T.; Lipizzi, E.L.; Newman, R.A.; Kamimori, G.H.; Balkin, T.J. Description: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Insufficient sleep can adversely affect a variety of cognitive abilities, ranging from simple alertness to higher-order executive functions. Although the effects of sleep loss on mood and cognition are well documented, there have been no controlled studies examining its effects on perceived emotional intelligence (EQ) and constructive thinking, abilities that require the integration of affect and cognition and are central to adaptive functioning. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six healthy volunteers completed the Bar-On Emotional…

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Sleep under extreme environments: effects of heat and cold exposure, altitude, hyperbaric pressure and microgravity in space

Author: Buguet, A. Description: Human sleep is sensitive to the individual’s environment. The present review examines current knowledge of human sleep patterns under different environments: heat exposure, cold exposure, altitude, high pressure and microgravity in space. Heat exposure has two effects. In people living in temperate conditions, moderate heat loads (hot bath, sauna) prior to sleep provoke a delayed reaction across time (diachronic reaction) whereby slow-wave sleep (SWS) augments in the following night (neurogenic adaptive pathway). Melanoids and Caucasians living in the Sahel dry tropical climate experience diachronic increases in…

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Impact of delaying school start time on adolescent sleep, mood, and behavior

Author: Owens, Judith A.; Belon, Katherine; Moss, Patricia Description: OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a 30-minute delay in school start time on adolescents’ sleep, mood, and behavior. DESIGN: Participants completed the online retrospective Sleep Habits Survey before and after a change in school start time. SETTING: An independent high school in Rhode Island. PARTICIPANTS: Students (n = 201) in grades 9 through 12. Intervention Institution of a delay in school start time from 8 to 8:30 am. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sleep patterns and behavior, daytime sleepiness, mood, data from…

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Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition

Author: Killgore, William D. S. Description: Sleep deprivation is commonplace in modern society, but its far-reaching effects on cognitive performance are only beginning to be understood from a scientific perspective. While there is broad consensus that insufficient sleep leads to a general slowing of response speed and increased variability in performance, particularly for simple measures of alertness, attention and vigilance, there is much less agreement about the effects of sleep deprivation on many higher level cognitive capacities, including perception, memory and executive functions. Central to this debate has been the…

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Restless REM Sleep Impedes Overnight Amygdala Adaptation

Author: Wassing, R.; Lakbila-Kamal, O.; Ramautar, J.R.; Stoffers, D.; Schalkwijk, F.; Van Someren, E.J.W. Description: Animal studies show that insufficient silencing of the locus coeruleus (LC) during REM sleep impairs sleep-related brain plasticity. Restless REM sleep, a characteristic of several psychiatric disorders, likely reflects insufficient LC silencing. We investigated whether endogenous REM sleep interruptions interfere with overnight reorganization of limbic circuits in human volunteers with a wide range of insomnia severity, from no insomnia complaints to fulfilling community-sample criteria for insomnia disorder. We induced a self-conscious emotion during two functional…

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Orexin in sleep, addiction and more: is the perfect insomnia drug at hand?

Author: Hoyer, D.; Jacobson, L.H. Description: Orexins A and B (hypocretins 1 and 2) and their two receptors (OX1R and OX2R) were discovered in 1998 by two different groups. Orexin A and B are derived from the differential processing of a common precursor, the prepro-orexin peptide. The neuropeptides are expressed in a few thousand cells located in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), but their projections and receptor distribution are widespread throughout the brain. Remarkably, prepro peptide and double (OX1R/OX2R) receptor knock out (KO) mice reproduce a sleep phenotype known in humans…

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Ghrelin in mental health, sleep, memory

Author: Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.; Schussler, P.; Kluge, M. Description: Ghrelin acts as a neuropeptide. It participates in sleep-wake regulation. After systemic ghrelin treatment nonREM sleep is promoted in male humans and mice. This effect is influenced by gender, time of administration and depression. Ghrelin does not modulate sleep in healthy women and during the early morning in male subjects. In depressed women REM sleep is diminished after ghrelin. In elderly men and depressed men sleep promotion by ghrelin was preserved. In rats after central ghrelin feeding and wakefulness increased….

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