Sleep under extreme environments: effects of heat and cold exposure, altitude, hyperbaric pressure and microgravity in space

Author: Buguet, A. Description: Human sleep is sensitive to the individual’s environment. The present review examines current knowledge of human sleep patterns under different environments: heat exposure, cold exposure, altitude, high pressure and microgravity in space. Heat exposure has two effects. In people living in temperate conditions, moderate heat loads (hot bath, sauna) prior to sleep provoke a delayed reaction across time (diachronic reaction) whereby slow-wave sleep (SWS) augments in the following night (neurogenic adaptive pathway). Melanoids and Caucasians living in the Sahel dry tropical climate experience diachronic increases in…

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Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills

Author: Killgore, W.D.S.; Kahn-Greene, E.T.; Lipizzi, E.L.; Newman, R.A.; Kamimori, G.H.; Balkin, T.J. Description: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Insufficient sleep can adversely affect a variety of cognitive abilities, ranging from simple alertness to higher-order executive functions. Although the effects of sleep loss on mood and cognition are well documented, there have been no controlled studies examining its effects on perceived emotional intelligence (EQ) and constructive thinking, abilities that require the integration of affect and cognition and are central to adaptive functioning. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six healthy volunteers completed the Bar-On Emotional…

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Distinct associations between energy balance and the sleep characteristics slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep

Author: Rutters, F.; Gonnissen, H. K.; Hursel, R.; Lemmens, S. G.; Martens, E. A.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Description: CONTEXT: Epidemiologically, an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sleep duration is observed. Intra-individual variance in the amount of slow wave sleep (SWS) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been related to variance of metabolic and endocrine parameters, which are risk factors for the disturbance of energy balance (EB). OBJECTIVE: To investigate inter-individual relationships between EB (EB= energy intake-energy expenditure|, MJ/24 h), SWS or REM sleep, and relevant parameters…

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How is good and poor sleep in older adults and college students related to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ability to concentrate?

Author: Alapin, I.; Fichten, C.S.; Libman, E.; Creti, L.; Bailes, S.; Wright, J. Description: We compared good sleepers with minimally and highly distressed poor sleepers on three measures of daytime functioning: self-reported fatigue, sleepiness, and cognitive inefficiency. In two samples (194 older adults, 136 college students), we tested the hypotheses that (1) poor sleepers experience more problems with daytime functioning than good sleepers, (2) highly distressed poor sleepers report greater impairment in functioning during the day than either good sleepers or minimally distressed poor sleepers, (3) daytime symptoms are more…

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The cognitive cost of sleep lost

Author: McCoy, J.G.; Strecker, R.E. Description: A substantial body of literature supports the intuitive notion that a good night’s sleep can facilitate human cognitive performance the next day. Deficits in attention, learning & memory, emotional reactivity, and higher-order cognitive processes, such as executive function and decision making, have all been documented following sleep disruption in humans. Thus, whilst numerous clinical and experimental studies link human sleep disturbance to cognitive deficits, attempts to develop valid and reliable rodent models of these phenomena are fewer, and relatively more recent. This review focuses…

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Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Nocturnal Sleep and Early-Morning Behavior in Young Adults

Author: Nicholson, A.N.; Turner, C.; Stone, B.M.; Robson, P.J. Description: The effects of cannabis extracts on nocturnal sleep, early-morning performance, memory, and sleepiness were studied in 8 healthy volunteers (4 males, 4 females; 21 to 34 years). The study was double-blind and placebo-controlled with a 4-way crossover design. The 4 treatments were placebo, 15 mg Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 5 mg THC combined with 5 mg cannabidiol (CBD), and 15 mg THC combined with 15 mg CBD. These were formulated in 50:50 ethanol to propylene glycol and administered using an oromucosal spray…

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Lack of sleep and unethical conduct

Author: Barnes, Christopher M.; Schaubroeck, John; Huth, Megan; Ghumman, Sonia Description: We draw from the Ego Depletion model and research on sleep physiology to predict a relationship between lack of sleep and individuals’ unethical behavior. Laboratory studies showed that sleep quantity is positively related to self-control resources and negative associated with unethical behavior. In a cross-sectional field study examining unethical behavior in a variety of work settings, low levels of sleep, and low perceived quality of sleep, were both positively related to unethical behavior as rated by the supervisor, and…

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Effects of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) on sleep and body temperature following controllable footshock stress in mice

Author: Yang, L.; Wellman, L.L.; Tang, X.; Sanford, L.D. Description: Rapid eye movement sleep (REM) is increased after controllable stress (modeled by escapable footshock, ES) and decreased after uncontrollable stress (modeled by inescapable footshock, IS). Decreases in REM after IS are exacerbated by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and attenuated by a CRF antagonist. In this study, we trained mice with ES following injections of CRF, astressin (AST), or saline (SAL) to determine whether CRF would alter REM after ES. Male BALB/cJ mice (n=7) were implanted for recording sleep, activity and…

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The behavioral effects of REM sleep deprivation in rats

Author: Albert, I.; Cicala, G.A.; Siegel, J. Description: Four experiments were performed to test the behavioral effects of REM deprivation on rats. Two studies of avoidance learning showed that shuttle avoidance and runway avoidance were unaffected by REM deprivation. REM deprivation produced an enhancement of activity, and the addition of periodic shock demonstrated a failure of adaptation for REM-deprived subjects. These data were interpreted as indicating that REM deprivation produces motivational effects on rat behavior and that electric shock-induced pain and REM deprivation interact to change activity patterns. It was…

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Opposite effects of noradrenaline and acetylcholine upon hypocretin/orexin versus melanin concentrating hormone neurons in rat hypothalamic slices

Author: Bayer, L.; Eggermann, E.; Serafin, M.; Grivel, J.; Machard, D.; Muhlethaler, M.; Jones, B.E. Description: Hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt/Orx) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) are peptides contained in overlapping cell groups of the lateral hypothalamus and commonly involved in regulating sleep-wake states and energy balance, though likely in different ways. To see if these neurons are similarly or differentially modulated by neurotransmitters of the major brainstem arousal systems, the effects of noradrenaline (NA) and carbachol, a cholinergic agonist, were examined on identified Hcrt/Orx and MCH neurons in rat hypothalamic slices. Whereas…

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