Virus infection improves drought tolerance

Author: Xu, Ping; Chen, Fang; Mannas, Jonathan P.; Feldman, Tracy; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Roossinck, Marilyn J. Description: Viruses are obligate intracellular symbionts. Plant viruses are often discovered and studied as pathogenic parasites that cause diseases in agricultural plants. However, here it is shown that viruses can extend survival of their hosts under conditions of abiotic stress that could benefit hosts if they subsequently recover and reproduce. Various plant species were inoculated with four different RNA viruses, Brome mosaic virus (BMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus and Tobacco rattle…

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Viruses in the phytobiome

Author: Roossinck, Marilyn J. Description: The phytobiome, defined as plants and all the entities that interact with them, is rich in viruses, but with the exception of plant viruses of crop plants, most of the phytobiome viruses remain very understudied. This review focuses on the neglected portions of the phytobiome, including viruses of other microbes interacting with plants, viruses in the soil, viruses of wild plants, and relationships between viruses and the vectors of plant viruses. Subject headings: Phytobiome; Virus; Plants; Crops; Microbes; Soil Publication year: 2019 Journal or book…

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Viruses in cancer treatment

Author: Alemany, R. Description: Soon after the discovery that viruses cause human disease, started the idea of using viruses to treat cancer. After the initial indiscriminate use, crude preparations of each novel virus in the early twentieth century, a second wave of virotherapy blossomed in the 60s with purified and selected viruses. Responses were rare and short-lived. Immune rejection of the oncolytic viruses was identified as the major problem and virotherapy was abandoned. During the past two decades, virotherapy has re-emerged with engineered viruses, with a trend towards using them…

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Effect of altitude on hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus infection

Author: Choudhuri, Julie A.; Ogden, Lorraine G.; Ruttenber, A. James; Thomas, Deborah S. K.; Todd, James K.; Simoes, Eric A. F. Description: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the foremost cause of serious lower respiratory tract infection in young children and infants. Because higher rates of hospitalization for bronchiolitis and pneumonia have been noted in high-altitude regions, we hypothesized that physiologic responses to altitude would predispose children to more severe illness from RSV infection. This study examined the effect of residential altitude on hospitalizations for RSV infection in Colorado from…

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Paradoxical role of antibodies in dengue virus infections: considerations for prophylactic vaccine development

Author: Acosta, E.G.; Bartenschlager, R. Description: Highly effective prophylactic vaccines for flaviviruses including yellow fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus and Japanese encephalitis virus are currently in use. However, the development of a dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has been hampered by the requirement of simultaneous protection against four distinct serotypes and the threat that DENV-specific antibodies might either mediate neutralization or, on the contrary, exacerbate disease through the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Therefore, understanding the cellular, biochemical and molecular basis of antibody-mediated neutralization and ADE are fundamental for…

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Emergence and clinical insights into the pathology of Chikungunya virus infection

Author: Jaffar-Bandjee, M.C.; Ramful, D.; Gauzere, B.A.; Hoarau, J.J.; Krejbich-Trotot, P.; Robin, S.; Ribera, A.; Selambarom, J.; Gasque, P. Description: Major epidemics of Chikungunya have re-emerged with millions of cases worldwide. What was once largely a tropical disease in poorer countries is now recognized as a major global health issue. The disease is perpetuated by the alphavirus Chikungunya, and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The infection is highly symptomatic, with fever, skin rash and incapacitating arthralgia, which can evolve to chronic arthritis and rheumatism in elderly patients. Mother-to-child transmission, encephalitis,…

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Zika Virus and Chikungunya Virus CoInfections: A Series of Three Cases from a Single Center in Ecuador

Author: Zambrano, H.; Waggoner, J.J.; Almeida, C.; Rivera, L.; Benjamin, J.Q.; Pinsky, B.A. Description: Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) cocirculate throughout much of the tropical Western Hemisphere; however, few cases of coinfection with these two pathogens have been reported. Herein, we describe three cases of ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection detected at a single center in Ecuador: a patient who developed symptoms on postoperative day 5 from an orthopedic procedure, a woman who had traveled to Ecuador for fertility treatment, and a woman who was admitted for Guillain-Barre syndrome and had…

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Rapid detection and high occurrence of porcine rotavirus A, B, and C by RT-qPCR in diagnostic samples

Author: Marthaler, D.; Homwong, N.; Rossow, K.; Culhane, M.; Goyal, S.; Collins, J.; Matthijnssens, J.; Ciarlet, M. Description: Rotaviruses are important cause of diarrhea in animals, including humans. Currently, rotavirus species A, B, C, E, and H (RVA-RVC, RVE, and RVH) have been identified in pigs. Traditionally, RVA has been considered the primary cause of diarrhea in pigs, and RVB and RVC had been described sporadically in pigs until recently. Qualitative porcine RVA, RVB, and RVC RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were designed and 7508 porcine diarrheic samples, submitted to University of…

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Multiplexed Gene Editing and Protein Overexpression Using a Tobacco mosaic virus Viral Vector

Author: Cody, W.B.; Scholthof, H.B.; Mirkov, T.E. Description: Development of CRISPR/Cas9 transient gene editing screening tools in plant biology has been hindered by difficulty of delivering high quantities of biologically active single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). Furthermore, it has been largely accepted that in vivo generated sgRNAs need to be devoid of extraneous nucleotides, which has limited sgRNA expression by delivery vectors. Here, we increased cellular concentrations of sgRNA by transiently delivering sgRNAs using a Tobacco mosaic virus-derived vector (TRBO) designed with 5′ and 3′ sgRNA proximal nucleotide-processing capabilities. To demonstrate…

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5′-triphosphate-siRNA activates RIG-I-dependent type I interferon production and enhances inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication in HepG2.2.15 cells

Author: Chen, X.; Qian, Y.; Yan, F.; Tu, J.; Yang, X.; Xing, Y.; Chen, Z. Description: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection often results in acute or chronic viral hepatitis and other liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapies for HBV usually have severe side effects and can cause development of drug-resistant mutants. An alternative and safe immunotherapeutic approach for HBV infection is urgently needed for effective anti-HBV therapy. In this study, we propose a new strategy for anti-HBV therapy that activates type-I interferon (IFN) antiviral innate immunity through…

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