Caenorhabditis elegans: an emerging model in biomedical and environmental toxicology

Author: Leung, Maxwell C. K.; Williams, Phillip L.; Benedetto, Alexandre; Au, Catherine; Helmcke, Kirsten J.; Aschner, Michael; Meyer, Joel N. Description: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as an important animal model in various fields including neurobiology, developmental biology, and genetics. Characteristics of this animal model that have contributed to its success include its genetic manipulability, invariant and fully described developmental program, well-characterized genome, ease of maintenance, short and prolific life cycle, and small body size. These same features have led to an increasing use of C. elegans in toxicology,…

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A living model for obesity and aging research: Caenorhabditis elegans

Author: Shen, Peiyi; Yue, Yiren; Park, Yeonhwa Description: Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a free-living nematode that has been extensively utilized as an animal model for research involving aging and neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, etc. Compared with traditional animal models, this small nematode possesses many benefits, such as small body size, short lifespan, completely sequenced genome, and more than 65% of the genes associated with human disease. All these characteristics make this organism an ideal living system for obesity and aging studies. This review gives a brief introduction…

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Simple animal models for microbiome research

Author: Douglas, Angela E. Description: The health and fitness of animals, including humans, are influenced by the presence and composition of resident microbial communities. The development of rational microbial therapies to alleviate chronic immunological, metabolic and neurobiological diseases requires an understanding of the processes underlying microbial community assembly and the mechanisms by which microorganisms influence host traits. For fundamental discovery, simple animal models (that is, lower vertebrate and invertebrate species with low diversity microbiomes) are more cost-effective and time-efficient than mammal models, especially for complex experimental designs and sophisticated genetic…

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Caenorhabditis elegans Lipin 1 moderates the lifespan-shortening effects of dietary glucose by maintaining w-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

Author: Jung, Yoonji; Kwon, Sujeong; Ham, Seokjin; Lee, Dongyeop; Park, Hae-Eun H.; Yamaoka, Yasuyo; Jeong, Dae-Eun; Artan, Murat; Altintas, Ozlem; Park, Sangsoon; Hwang, Wooseon; Lee, Yujin; Son, Heehwa G.; An, Seon Woo A.; Kim, Eun Ji E.; Seo, Mihwa; Lee, Seung-Jae V. Description: Excessive glucose causes various diseases and decreases lifespan by altering metabolic processes, but underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that Lipin 1/LPIN-1, a phosphatidic acid phosphatase and a putative transcriptional coregulator, prevents life-shortening effects of dietary glucose on Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that depletion of…

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Glucose restriction extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span by inducing mitochondrial respiration and increasing oxidative stress

Author: Schulz, Tim J.; Zarse, Kim; Voigt, Anja; Urban, Nadine; Birringer, Marc; Ristow, Michael Description: Increasing cellular glucose uptake is a fundamental concept in treatment of type 2 diabetes, whereas nutritive calorie restriction increases life expectancy. We show here that increased glucose availability decreases Caenorhabditis elegans life span, while impaired glucose metabolism extends life expectancy by inducing mitochondrial respiration. The histone deacetylase Sir2.1 is found here to be dispensable for this phenotype, whereas disruption of aak-2, a homolog of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK), abolishes extension of life span due to impaired…

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A survey on facial soft biometrics for video surveillance and forensic applications

Author: Becerra-Riera, Fabiola; Morales-Gonzalez, Annette; Mendez-Vazquez, Heydi Description: The face is one of the most reliable and easy-to-acquire biometric features, widely used for the recognition of individuals. In controlled environments facial recognition systems are highly effective, however, in real world scenarios and under varying lighting conditions, pose changes, facial expressions, occlusions and low resolution of captured images/videos, the task of recognizing faces becomes significantly complex. In this context it has been shown that certain attributes can be retrieved with a relative probability of success, being useful to complement a non-conclusive…

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What Are Important Ethical Implications of Using Facial Recognition Technology in Health Care?

Author: Martinez-Martin, Nicole Description: Applications of facial recognition technology (FRT) in health care settings have been developed to identify and monitor patients as well as to diagnose genetic, medical, and behavioral conditions. The use of FRT in health care suggests the importance of informed consent, data input and analysis quality, effective communication about incidental findings, and potential influence on patient-clinician relationships. Privacy and data protection are thought to present challenges for the use of FRT for health applications. Subject headings: Confidentiality; Delivery of Health Care; Facial Recognition; Humans; Informed Consent;…

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Facial recognition technology in schools: critical questions and concerns

Author: Andrejevic, Mark; Selwyn, Neil Description: Facial recognition technology is now being introduced across various aspects of public life. This includes the burgeoning integration of facial recognition and facial detection into compulsory schooling to address issues such as campus security, automated registration and student emotion detection. So far, these technologies have largely been seen as routine additions to school systems with already extensive cultures of monitoring and surveillance. While critical commentators are beginning to question the pedagogical limitations of facially driven learning, this article contends that school-based facial recognition presents…

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Deep neural networks are more accurate than humans at detecting sexual orientation from facial images

Author: Wang, Yilun; Kosinski, Michal Description: We show that faces contain much more information about sexual orientation than can be perceived or interpreted by the human brain. We used deep neural networks to extract features from 35,326 facial images. These features were entered into a logistic regression aimed at classifying sexual orientation. Given a single facial image, a classifier could correctly distinguish between gay and heterosexual men in 81% of cases, and in 71% of cases for women. Human judges achieved much lower accuracy: 61% for men and 54% for…

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The Death of Privacy?

Author: Froomkin, A. Michael Description: The rapid deployment of privacy-destroying technologies by governments and businesses threatens to make informational privacy obsolete. The first part of this article describes a range of current technologies to which the law has yet to respond effectively. These include: routine collection of transactional data, growing automated surveillance in public places, deployment of facial recognition technology and other biometrics, cell-phone tracking, vehicle tracking, satellite monitoring, workplace surveillance, Internet tracking from cookies to clicktrails, and sense-enhanced searches that allow observers to see through everything from walls to…

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