Local Distrust and Regime Support: Sources and Effects of Political Trust in China

Author: Chen, Dan Description: Political trust is an important indicator of regime support. However, we have yet to fully understand the sources and consequence of varying levels of trust in specific political institutions. Difference in political trust at national and local levels is especially important for understanding authoritarian systems. Focusing on China, this article examines different levels of trust in the central and local governments. Building on existing research that consistently finds high central trust with lower local trust, this article investigates whether the trust sources differ and the consequence…

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Sources of Corruption in Authoritarian Regimes

Author: Chang, Eric C. C.; Golden, Miriam A. Description: We study the determinants of corruption in a sample of 40-odd authoritarian polities at the turn of the 21st century. Recent studies have proposed several parallel mechanisms potentially relevant for variations in the extent of corruption in authoritarian regimes. We put these various theories into a unified empirical model in order to investigate the wide range of corruption observed in non-democratic political systems. We investigate the importance to variations in corruption in authoritarian countries of the type of group in power,…

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Modern Authoritarianism and Corruption

Author: Nisnevich, Yuliy Description: This paper focuses on the link between the modern authoritarianism and corruption. Even though corruption plays an important role in Communist regimes, post-colonial dictatorships and authoritarian monarchies, coercion – which is a traditional tool used by authoritarian rulers – remains the basis of these regimes. However, a new type of non-democratic regimes, which we call neoauthoritarian, has emerged since the last quarter of the XX century. The new regimes are based on a dynamic interplay between coercion and corruption. That interplay allows authoritarian rulers to bring…

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Media, Protest Diffusion, and Authoritarian Resilience

Author: Huang, Haifeng; Boranbay-Akan, Serra; Huang, Ling Description: Do authoritarian governments always censor news about protests to prevent unrest from spreading? Existing research on authoritarian politics stresses the danger that information spread within the society poses for a regime. In particular, media and Internet reports of social unrest are deemed to threaten authoritarian rule, as such reports may incite more protests and thus spread instability. We show that such reasoning is incomplete if social protests are targeted at local officials. Allowing media the freedom to report local protests may indeed…

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Effects of social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism on corrupt intention: The role of moral outrage

Author: Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Zheng, Wenwen; Huang, Zhenwei Description: Previous research suggested that dominance orientation and authoritarianism may be associated with corruption, but little research has verified this assumption or uncovered its psychological processes. In this article, we examined empirically the relationships between social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and corrupt intention and explored the mediating role of moral outrage on these relationships. A total of 677 college students participated in the study and completed measures of SDO, RWA, moral outrage and corrupt intention. Our findings demonstrated that…

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Biology in Bloom: A Primer on the Arabidopsis thaliana Model System

Author: Woodward, Andrew W.; Bartel, Bonnie Description: Arabidopsis thaliana could have easily escaped human scrutiny. Instead, Arabidopsis has become the most widely studied plant in modern biology despite its absence from the dinner table. Pairing diminutive stature and genome with prodigious resources and tools, Arabidopsis offers a window into the molecular, cellular, and developmental mechanisms underlying life as a multicellular photoautotroph. Many basic discoveries made using this plant have spawned new research areas, even beyond the verdant fields of plant biology. With a suite of resources and tools unmatched among…

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Rising Atmospheric CO2 Lowers Concentrations of Plant Carotenoids Essential to Human Health: A Meta-Analysis

Author: Loladze, Irakli; Nolan, John M.; Ziska, Lewis H.; Knobbe, Amy R. Description: Plant and human tissues (e.g., leaves, retina) share the need for carotenoids to protect against light-induced and other oxidative stresses. While plants synthesize carotenoids de novo, humans must obtain them primarily through plant-based foods. In plants, elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2 ) decrease the concentrations of essential minerals, including magnesium and zinc (essential for brain and eye health), but the overall effect of globally rising CO2 levels on carotenoids is unknown. Here, investigation is sought…

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The heat-shock protein/chaperone network and multiple stress resistance

Author: Jacob, Pierre; Hirt, Heribert; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid Description: Crop yield has been greatly enhanced during the last century. However, most elite cultivars are adapted to temperate climates and are not well suited to more stressful conditions. In the context of climate change, stress resistance is a major concern. To overcome these difficulties, scientists may help breeders by providing genetic markers associated with stress resistance. However, multistress resistance cannot be obtained from the simple addition of single stress resistance traits. In the field, stresses are unpredictable and several may occur at…

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No level of alcohol consumption improves health

Author: Burton, Robyn; Sheron, Nick Description: By use of methodological enhancements of previous iterations, the systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016, is the most comprehensive estimate of the global burden of alcohol use to date. The GBD 2016 Alcohol Collaborators clearly demonstrate the substantial, and larger than previously estimated, contribution of alcohol to death, disability, and ill health, globally. In 2016, alcohol use was the seventh leading risk factor for both deaths and disability-adjusted life-years…

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Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

Author: GBD 2016 Alcohol Collaborators Description: BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of…

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