The Determinants of Environmental Migrants’ Conflict Perception

Author: Koubi, Vally; Bohmelt, Tobias; Spilker, Gabriele; Schaffer, Lena Description: Migration is likely to be a key factor linking climate change and conflict. However, our understanding of the factors behind and consequences of migration is surprisingly limited. We take this shortcoming as a motivation for our research and study the relationship between environmental migration and conflict at the micro level. In particular, we focus on environmental migrants’ conflict perceptions. We contend that variation in migrants’ conflict perception can be explained by the type of environmental event people experienced in their…

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The impact of weather anomalies on migration in sub-Saharan Africa

Author: Marchiori, Luca; Maystadt, Jean-Francois; Schumacher, Ingmar Description: This paper analyzes the effects of weather anomalies on migration in sub-Saharan Africa. We present a theoretical model that demonstrates how weather anomalies induce rural-urban migration that subsequently triggers international migration. We distinguish two transmission channels, an amenity channel and an economic geography channel. Based on annual, cross-country panel data for sub-Saharan Africa, we present an empirical model that suggests that weather anomalies increased internal and international migration through both channels. We estimate that temperature and rainfall anomalies caused a total net…

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The uneven geography of research on “environmental migration”

Author: Piguet, Etienne; Kaenzig, Raoul; Guelat, Jeremie Description: Climate change and environmental hazards affect the entire world, but their interactions with–and consequences on–human migration are unevenly distributed geographically. Research on climate and migration have their own geographies which do not necessarily coincide. This paper critically confronts these two geographies by presenting the first detailed mapping of research in the field of environmentally induced migration. After a brief review of the geography of research on climate change, the paper presents an overview of nearly 50 years of case studies on the…

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When nature rebels: international migration, climate change, and inequality

Author: Marchiori, Luca; Schumacher, Ingmar Description: We study climate change and international migration in a two-country overlapping generations model with endogenous climate change. Our main findings are that climate change increases migration; small impacts of climate change have significant impacts on the number of migrants; a laxer immigration policy increases long-run migration, aggravates climate change, and increases north-south inequality if climate change impacts are not too small; and a greener technology reduces emissions, long-run migration, and inequality if the migrants’ impact to overall climate change is large. The preference over…

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Public Health and Mental Health Implications of Environmentally Induced Forced Migration

Author: Shultz, James M.; Rechkemmer, Andreas; Rai, Abha; McManus, Katherine T. Description: Climate change is increasingly forcing population displacement, better described by the phrase environmentally induced forced migration. Rising global temperatures, rising sea levels, increasing frequency and severity of natural disasters, and progressive depletion of life-sustaining resources are among the drivers that stimulate population mobility. Projections forecast that current trends will rapidly accelerate. This will lead to an estimated 200 million climate migrants by the year 2050 and create dangerous tipping points for public health and security. Among the public…

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Health(care) in the Crisis: Reflections in Science and Society on Opioid Addiction

Author: Damiescu, Roxana; Banerjee, Mita; Lee, David Y. W.; Paul, Norbert W.; Efferth, Thomas Description: Opioid abuse and misuse have led to an epidemic which is currently spreading worldwide. Since the number of opioid overdoses is still increasing, it is becoming obvious that current rather unsystematic approaches to tackle this health problem are not effective. This review suggests that fighting the opioid epidemic requires a structured public health approach. Therefore, it is important to consider not only scientific and biomedical perspectives, but societal implications and the lived experience of groups…

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Endogenous Opioids at the Intersection of Opioid Addiction, Pain, and Depression: The Search for a Precision Medicine Approach

Author: Emery, Michael A.; Akil, Huda Description: Opioid addiction and overdose are at record levels in the United States. This is driven, in part, by their widespread prescription for the treatment of pain, which also increased opportunity for diversion by sensation-seeking users. Despite considerable research on the neurobiology of addiction, treatment options for opioid abuse remain limited. Mood disorders, particularly depression, are often comorbid with both pain disorders and opioid abuse. The endogenous opioid system, a complex neuromodulatory system, sits at the neurobiological convergence point of these three comorbid disease…

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Non-Opioid Treatments for Opioid Use Disorder: Rationales and Data to Date

Author: Chalhoub, Reda M.; Kalivas, Peter W. Description: Opioid use disorder (OUD) represents a major public health problem that affects millions of people in the USA and worldwide. The relapsing and recurring aspect of OUD, driven by lasting neurobiological adaptations at different reward centres in the brain, represents a major obstacle towards successful long-term remission from opioid use. Currently, three drugs that modulate the function of the opioidergic receptors, methadone, buprenorphine and naltrexone have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat OUD. In this review,…

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The relationship between TIGIT+ regulatory T cells and autoimmune disease

Author: Lee, Darren J. Description: The role of regulatory T cells (Treg cell) in controlling autoimmune disease is an area of intense study. As such, the characterization and understanding the function of Treg markers has the potential to provide a considerable impact in developing treatments and understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. One such inhibitory Treg cell marker that has been recently discovered is T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT). In this review, we discuss what is known about the expression and function of TIGIT on Treg cells, and…

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The long arm of email incivility: Transmitted stress to the partner and partner work withdrawal

Author: Park, YoungAh; Haun, Verena C. Description: As email communication becomes increasingly pervasive in the workplace, incivility can be manifested through work email. Integrating conservation of resources theory with spillover-crossover frameworks, the authors propose and test a couple-dyadic model regarding email incivility’s effects on work withdrawal for employees and their domestic partners. Online survey data were collected from 167 dual-earner couples at multiple time points. Results from actor-partner interdependence mediation and moderation modeling showed that when employees experience more frequent incivility via work email during a week, they withdraw from…

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