Dryland mechanisms could widely control ecosystem functioning in a drier and warmer world

Author: Grunzweig, Jose M.; De Boeck, Hans J.; Rey, Ana; Santos, Maria J.; Adam, Ori; Bahn, Michael; Belnap, Jayne; Deckmyn, Gaby; Dekker, Stefan C.; Flores, Omar; Gliksman, Daniel; Helman, David; Hultine, Kevin R.; Liu, Lingli; Meron, Ehud; Michael, Yaron; Sheffer, Efrat; Throop, Heather L.; Tzuk, Omer; Yakir, Dan Description: Responses of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change have been explored in many regions worldwide. While continued drying and warming may alter process rates and deteriorate the state and performance of ecosystems, it could also lead to more fundamental changes in the…

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The association between beliefs about the centrality of mental illness in gun violence and general firearm beliefs and behaviors

Author: Anestis, Michael D.; Daruwala, Samantha E. Description: Objective: The tendency to blame gun violence on mental illness may limit the implementation of evidence-based gun violence prevention efforts. We examined the extent to which the belief that gun violence is a mental health problem (vs. access to firearms) is associated with views about firearms and openness to means safety. Method: In 2 samples, U.S. firearm owners completed a survey on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. In Sample 1 (n = 201, M age = 36.79), participants endorsed that gun violence is either…

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Mental Illness and Gun Violence: Disrupting the Narrative

Author: McGinty, Emma E. Description: Mental illness receives prominent attention in the U.S. dialogue on gun violence, despite evidence showing that most people with mental illness are never violent and most gun violence is not caused by mental illness (“violence” refers here and throughout to interpersonal violence, not suicide). Messages linking mental illness with violence increase social stigma, which contributes to low treatment rates and other negative outcomes among people with mental illness. Nonetheless, mental illness continues to be a central topic in gun violence debates such as the one…

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Dangerous weapons or dangerous people? The temporal associations between gun violence and mental health

Author: Lu, Yu; Temple, Jeff R. Description: Despite the public, political, and media narrative that mental health is at the root of gun violence, evidence is lacking to infer a causal link. This study examines the temporal associations between gun violence (i.e., threatening someone with a gun and gun carrying) and mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, stress, PTSD, hostility, impulsivity, and borderline personality disorder) as well the cross-sectional associations with gun access and gun ownership in a group of emerging adults. Waves 6 (2015) and 8 (2017) data were used…

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Psychosis and mass shootings: A systematic examination using publicly available data

Author: Peterson, Jillian K.; Densley, James A.; Knapp, Kyle; Higgins, Stasia; Jensen, Amanda Description: Mass shootings are often blamed on serious mental illness. This study assesses the role of psychosis in contributing to mass shootings along a continuum. The role of psychosis is compared with other motivations for mass shootings including employment issues, interpersonal conflict, relationship issues, hate, and fame-seeking. Perpetrators motivated by psychosis are also compared with other perpetrators on several well-established risk factors for violence. It is hypothesized that a mental health history is common among mass shooters,…

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Violence and mental illness

Author: Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S. Description: Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well…

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Temperature increase reduces global yields of major crops in four independent estimates

Author: Zhao, Chuang; Liu, Bing; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Xuhui; Lobell, David B.; Huang, Yao; Huang, Mengtian; Yao, Yitong; Bassu, Simona; Ciais, Philippe; Durand, Jean-Louis; Elliott, Joshua; Ewert, Frank; Janssens, Ivan A.; Li, Tao; Lin, Erda; Liu, Qiang; Martre, Pierre; Muller, Christoph; Peng, Shushi; Penuelas, Josep; Ruane, Alex C.; Wallach, Daniel; Wang, Tao; Wu, Donghai; Liu, Zhuo; Zhu, Yan; Zhu, Zaichun; Asseng, Senthold Description: Wheat, rice, maize, and soybean provide two-thirds of human caloric intake. Assessing the impact of global temperature increase on production of these crops is therefore critical to…

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Climate change has likely already affected global food production

Author: Ray, Deepak K.; West, Paul C.; Clark, Michael; Gerber, James S.; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Chatterjee, Snigdhansu Description: Crop yields are projected to decrease under future climate conditions, and recent research suggests that yields have already been impacted. However, current impacts on a diversity of crops subnationally and implications for food security remains unclear. Here, we constructed linear regression relationships using weather and reported crop data to assess the potential impact of observed climate change on the yields of the top ten global crops-barley, cassava, maize, oil palm, rapeseed, rice,…

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Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels this century will alter the protein, micronutrients, and vitamin content of rice grains with potential health consequences for the poorest rice-dependent countries

Author: Zhu, Chunwu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Loladze, Irakli; Zhu, Jianguo; Jiang, Qian; Xu, Xi; Liu, Gang; Seneweera, Saman; Ebi, Kristie L.; Drewnowski, Adam; Fukagawa, Naomi K.; Ziska, Lewis H. Description: Declines of protein and minerals essential for humans, including iron and zinc, have been reported for crops in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, CO2. For the current century, estimates of the potential human health impact of these declines range from 138 million to 1.4 billion, depending on the nutrient. However, changes in plant-based vitamin content in response to [CO2]…

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K-12 School Shootings: Implications for Policy, Prevention, and Child Well-Being

Author: Reeping, Paul M.; Gobaud, Ariana N.; Branas, Charles C.; Rajan, Sonali Description: Schools should be considered safe spaces for children; children need to feel secure in order to grow and learn. This article argues that when a school shooting occurs, the harm goes beyond those who are injured or killed, because the presumption of security is shattered, and the mental and emotional health of the students is threatened. There are many interventions for preventing these attacks at the school, state, and federal levels. This article explores evidence behind some…

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